Religion of India-Vardhamana Mahavira

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Vardhamana Mahavira 540 BC- 468 BC

  • Born: 540 BC
  • Place of birth- Kundagram near Vaishali- Vill- Basarh
  • Father- Siddhartha, Chief of Jnatri Kshatriya clan;
  • Mother- Trishala, Licchchhavi provinces
  • Brother- Nandivardlian
  • Renunciation: abandon the world at the age of 30; ascetic Group called Nirgranthrs- (Free From Bonds)
  • kept on wandering for 12 years;
  • maximum stay in a village- 5hrs. -1 day
  • maximum stay in a town-5 lays

Kaivalya-Jnana

  • Kaivalya-Jnana and abandoned them near Parsavanath Hills altogether when he attained perfect knowledge;
  • propagated for 30 years;
  • visited Kosala, Magadha, Mithila, Champa;
  • received under salatree on the bank of the river Rijupalika near the village

Jrimbhika-Grama

  • died at the of 72 at Pavapuri in Rajgir in 468 B. C. , according to Hemachandra.
  • Jemeli- first disciple of Mahavira, subsequently the first leader of Jaina schism; Patronage: Chandra Gupta Maurya/Karavela of Kalinga and Chalukya Shiddharaja Hemachandra
  • great Jaina scholar 1088 AD
  • Devachandra was his guru appointed under Jayasimha Siddharaja (Chalukyan)

Philosophy

  • They don՚t believed in creator, but emphasized on the existence of the perfected souls.
  • They believed in ANEKANTAVADA The reality has indefinite number of aspects and attributes.
  • Syadavada: also known as Saptabhandi, accepts it, no absolute and final affirmation of denial is possible because knowledge is a relative quality.
  • Derived its metaphyscial thoughts form the Samakhya School.
  • Varna: unlike Buddhism, believes in rebirth and recognizes Varna.
  • Believed in Jiva and Ajiva:
    • The world consists of two eternal, uncreated, co-existing but independent categories.
    • It is the most scientific concept of Jainism. Jiva is conscious power, but embarrassed with limitations of materialism and corresponds to soul.
    • Ajiva is unconscious like, matter, space, motion, and rest time.
    • The most important aspect which distinguishes Jiva and Ajiva is the Knowledge.
  • Knowledge: Mati: Sense Perception Sruti: Intelligible Symbols Avadhi: Supermandane: Supernormal means Mahaprayaya: Telepathy KevalaJnana: Knowledge of perfected soul
  • Material: Jiva, Puddgal, Dharma, Akash, and Kal

Panch Anuvrata:

  1. Non violence, i.e., Ahimsa
  2. Speak the truth, i.e., Satya
  3. commit no theft, i.e. Asteya,
  4. Celebacy , i.e., Brahmacharya, Mahavira only introduced this, rest four was already existing
  5. Non-possession (Aparigraha)
  6. Tattavas: Aasrava: the flow of subjects, Sanwara: to stop the flow of subjects into the soul, Nirjara: to destroy the subjects, Bandha and Siddha.
  7. Jainism believed in three aspects: Spad-veda, Sapta-bhangi, and Nyaydeva.
  8. The followers of Jainism is called NTRGRANTHAS.

Terminologies

  • Jitendra: Conquered the senses
  • Nirgranthi: Free from fetters
  • Jina: the conqueror
  • Arhant: Worthy or Perfect

Jaina Sect

  • Due to the wearing cloths, a division took place in thee Jainism: Svetambara and Digambara
  • Svetamvara, founded by Sthulbahu.
  • Digambara, also known as Manatunganota, founded by Bhadrabahu

Jaina Council

  1. First Council ″ Patallputra 3rd BC:
  2. This council is known council of Elders, convened by Sthulabahu. Compiled 12 Angas which replaced 14 Purvas (Mahavira՚s Teachings) , teachings received by Sthulabhadra at the feet of Guru Sambutavijya, which was rejected by the Digambaras.
  3. Second Council: Valabhi: 5thAD Leadership: Devardhi Ksharnasrama Decision:
  4. Finally Svetambaras 12 Angas reorganized and one was lost and added in the form of 12 Upangas, written down in Ardha-Magadhi language. Digambaras further divided into Samaiyas and Svetambaras divided into Therapanthis (who renounced idol worship and believed in scriptures, strict disciplinary laws.

Important Followers

  • Gangas,
  • Kadambas,
  • Chalukyas, and Rashtraku-tas: patronized Jainism.
  • Jinasena and Gunabhadra composed Mahapurana King Amoghavarsha of the Rashtrakutas - a Jaina wrote Ratnamalika Ganga ruler Nitimarga In Kanchi,
  • Samantabhadra Kalpa Sutra - most important treatise.

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