Expansion of British Power in India

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East India Company, which was merely one of the European trading companies, became the mighty political power by the end of 18th century. The British gradually defeated all the regional powers.

Expansion of British Power
KingdomYearFounderAnnexation by British
Nawab of Bengal1713Murshid Quli Jafar Khan1765 (Treaty of Allahabad)
Maratha-confederacy1720Baji rao I1801 (Subsidiary Alliance)
Nawab of Carnatic1720Saadatulla Khan1801 (Subsidiary Alliance)
Nawab of Awadh1722Mir Muhammad Amin Saadat Khan1801 (Subsidiary Alliance) , 1856 (Dalhousie)
Nizam of Hyderabad1724Mir Qamruddin Chin Kilich Khan1798 (Subsidiary Alliance)
Mysore1761Haidar Ali1799 (Subsidiary Alliance)
Punjab1792Ranjit Singh1849 (Dalhousie)

The Carnatic Wars

Carnatic use to be a subah under the Viceroy of Deccan. After the death of Aurangzeb, when the provincial Mughal viceroys declared their independence, Nizam of Hyderabad (viceroy of Deccan) too declared his independence. Subsequently the Nawab of Carnatic freed himself from the control of viceroy of Deccan and declared his independence.

Sadatullah Khan was the founder of the state of Carnatic with Arcot as its capital. Sadatullah Khan declared Dost Ali, his nephew, as his successor without the approval of the Viceroy of Deccan. The Viceroy of Deccan supported the other claimant as Nawab. The French and English trading companies supported the rival factions, which resulted in the wars. The other major cause of the Carnatic wars was political conditions prevailing in Europe.

  • First Carnatic war (1746 - 48) : Anawaruddin and Chanda Sahib claimed the throne of Carnatic and were supported by the rival European companies. Anwaruddin was appointed Nawab by the viceroy of Deccan. While Chanda Sahib was the son-in-law and heir of Dost Ali was supported by French. The French under Captain Paradise besieged Madras from Anawaruddin at the battle of St. Thome near river Aydar. The Treaty of Aix-La-Chappelle (1748) ended the war of Austrian succession and First Anglo-French war in India.
  • Second Carnatic war (1749 - 54) : French governor Dupleix aligned with Muzaffar Jung (Hyderabad) and Chanda Sahib (Carnatic/Arcot) . After initial reverses, Robert Clive emerged victorious. The treaty of Pondicherry by Godehu (new French governor in place of Duplex) ended the Second Anglo-French War.
  • Third Carnatic war (1758 - 63) : French Count de Lally captured Fort St. David. French were defeated at Wandiwash (1760) . It was a decisive defeat of French. The treaty of Paris (1763) ended the Third and Final Anglo-French war in India. Pondicherry was returned to French by this treaty.

Conquest over Bengal

With the disintegration of Mughal Empire after the death of Aurangzeb, the apex official of Mughal in Bengal declared its independence. The freeed themselves from the yoke of Mughal emipre and came to be known as “Nawab” of Bengal. The following is the list of Nawabs of Bengal

Murshil Quli Khan (1717 - 27)

Murshid Quli Khan was made Diwan of Bengal and Faujdar of Murshidabad in 1700 by Aurangzeb. In 1717, Murshid Quli Khan was appointed at Bengal՚s Subedar i.e.. governor by Mughal emperor Farrukh Siyar. He was also granted the Governorship of Orissa by Farrukh Siyar in 1719. He transferred the capital of Bengal from Dacca to Murshidabad. He tried to prevent the misuse of “dastak” by the servants of East India Company.

Shujauddin (1727 - 39)

He was the son-in-law of Murshid Quli Khan. Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah ‘Rangeela’ granted him the governorship of Bihar in 1733. He divided Bengal into four administrative units.

Sarfaraj Khan (1739 - 40)

He was the son of Shujauddin and was murdered by Alivardi Khan, the Deputy Governor of Bihar, in 1740.

Alivardi Khan (1740 - 56)

He legalized his usurpation by receiving a farman from Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah ‘Rangeela’ after paying him ₹ 2 Crores. He was defeated by Raghuji Bhonsle and had to pay ₹ 12 lakhs as war indemnity. He prevented the English and the French from fortifying their factories at Calcutta and Chandranagore respectively.

Sirajuddaula: 1756 - 57

Alivardi Khan was succeeded by his grandson Sirajuddaula. Sirajudaula was opposed by his aunt Ghasiti Begam. The differences cropped up between Nawab and English over the following issues:

  • Misuse of Dastak by the servants of the company
  • Instead of paying taxes on their goods, English imposed heavy duties on the Indian goods entering Calcutta
  • English supported the claims of Ghasiti Begam
  • The main reason of differences was the fortification of Calcutta factory by English. Nawab ordered to stop the fortification, which English declined.

Sirajuddaula seiged the English factory at Kasimbazar. On 20th June, 1756, Fort William surrendered but Robert Clive recovered Calcutta. On 2nd Jan. 1757, Treaty of Alinagar was signed, where by Siraj conceded practically all the demands. British then captured Chandranagore, the French settlement, on Marh 1757.

The Battle of Plassey ′ was fought on 23 June, 1757. Owing to the conspiracy, the Nawab was defeated. The following betrayed the Nawab:

  • Mir Jafar: Mir Bakshi
  • Manikchand: Officer in charge of Calcutta
  • Amichand: Rich Sikh merchant
  • Jagat Seth: Biggest banker of Bengal
  • Khadim Khan: Commanded a large number of Nawab՚s troops
  • Nand Kumar: The faujdar at Hughl

Mir Jafar

He was army chief or Mir Bakshi under Siraj-ud-Daula who betrayed Nawab and sided with English in battle of Pallasey. After the defeat of Nawab, the company installed him as Nawab. He was a titular Nawab who was controlled by the officials of the English Company.

The company was granted undisputed right to free trade in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. It received the Zamindari of 24 Parganas. Mir Jafar, however, fell into arrears and was forced to abdicate in favor of his son-in-law Mir Qasim.

Mir Qasim: 1760 - 64

Mir Qasim ceded Burdwan, Midnapore and Chittagong. He shifted his capital from Murshidabad to Munger. Mir Qasim soon revolted as he was angry with the British for misusing the dastak (free duty passes) . However, having been defeated by the British, he fled to Awadh, where he formed a confederacy with Awadh ruler Shujauddaula and Mughal emperor Shah Alam II.

The Battle of Buxar (1764) : English under Munro defeated the three powers i.e.. the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, Nawab of Awadh Suja-ud-daula and Nawab of Bengal Mir Qasim. Mir Jafar was again placed on the throne. Clive concluded two separate treaties of Allahabad with Shah Alam II (12 Aug. , 1765) and Shujauddaula (16 Aug. , 1765) .

The battles of Pallasey and Buxar changed the fate and nature of the English Company. From a mere trading entity it became a mighty political power in India. The company now controlled the vast resources of Bengal. This helped the company not only to eliminate its trading European rivals but also to establish a pan Indian Empire.

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