18 & 19 Century Socio-Religious Movement (India) -Brahmo Samaj, Ramakrishna Mission, Prarthana Samaj, Manav Dharma Sabha, Arya Samaj, Theosophical Society, Allgarh School, Farralzzi, Wahabl Movement

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Brahmo Samaj

Rajarama Mohan Roy: (1772-1833)

  • He published a book called Tohfat al - Muwabhiddin (A Gift of Deists), in 1804 and criticised idolatry and polytheism.

  • He worked as Diwan, under District Magistrate, Mr Digby, and served East India Company (EIC) for nine years and left the job in 1814.

  • In 1814, or 1815 founded Atmiya Sabha (Friendly Association).

  • In 1818, published "A Conference Between an Advocate for and an Opponent Practice of Burning Widows Alive"

  • In 1819, published "Samvad Kumudini" - an anti sati journal and defeated Subra-maniyam Sashtri in the debate.

  • David Hare was his associate in education.

  • In 1825, he founded Unitarian Mission and then Vedanta College.

  • On 20th August, 1828, the first meeting of Brahmo Samaj was organised. Tarachanda Chakravarty was Secretary. Brahmo Samaj was earlier known as Unitarian Mission.

  • Brahmo Samaj faded after his death in 1833.

Debendranath Tagore (1817-1905)

  • In 1839, he founded "Tattava Bodhini Sabha" (Truth-teaching Association).

  • In 1840, Tattvabodhini School was founded;

  • In 1843, published Tattavabodhini Patrika and decided to revive Brahmo Sabha.

  • He joined Brahmo Sabha in 1842 and wrote Brahmo Covenant.

  • In 1850, he released a volume of scriptures, the BraEma Dharma, for use in public and private worship.

Keshab Chandra Sen (1838-1884):

  • He joined Brahmo Samaj in 1857.

  • In 1860, Sen founded the Sangat Sabha (Believer's Associations).

  • In 1862, they organised inter-caste marriage

  • On 15th november, 1866, Senorganised Brahmo Samai of India; those loyal to Tagore grouped themselves into the Adi (original) Brahmo Samaj.

  • In 1864, after KCS visit to South, Veda Samaj was founded;

  • The Adi Brahmo Samai opposed the Brahmo Marriage Act of 1872. the Act legalised Brahmo marriage.

  • The Brahmo Samaj organised into SriTjurbar (an apostolic body of fheeldgrs and teachers.

  • In 1870, Sen left to England and met Queen Victoria.

  • In 1871. Sridharalu Naidu changed the name of Veda Samaj to Brahmo Samaj in Southern India.

  • He organised the Indian Reform Association with the intent of improving the life of the peasants and to reach them he published a journal, Sulabh Samachar

  • In 1878, he married his daughter to the Maharaja of CoochVihar and violated the marriage act of 1872.

  • On 15th May, 1878, the Sadharan Brahmo Samaj was founded by Brahmos who re-jected Sen's leadership, mainly by Shiv Nam Sashtri and Anand Mohan Bose.

  • In Jan, 1881, he founded Nava Vidhan (New Despensation) symbolised by a Red banner bearing the name of his Church plus the Hindu trident, the Christian Cross, and the Islamic Crescent.

  • In 1884, a new code, the -Nava Samhita, replaced the

  • existing Brahma Dharma.

  • In 1891, it opened the Das Ashram, a welfare institutions for the untouchables, and the Brahmo Girls School of Calcutta.

  • Sadharan Samaj allied with the movement of Viraslingam, a Telugu Reformer, in Andhra, and Pratap

  • Chandra Majumdar deseminated Brahmoism in England, America in 1874 and

  • 1884.

Ramakrishna Mission

Ramakrishna Pramah-Ansa (1834-86)

  • Original name Gangadhar Chattopadhyaya: born in Hugh

  • By 1872, Ramakrishna's wife Sarda Devi, joined him.

  • The teachings of Ramakrishna were popularized by Kesab Sen after 1875 when the two met for the first time

  • In 1882, one of the disciples Mahendranath Gupta began to record his teachers' conversation.

Narendranath Alias Vivekanand (1863-1902)

  • Joined Sadharan Brahmo Samaj, but in 1882, he met Ramakrishna Pramahansa.

  • In 1892, he travelled down the western coast of India where at the suggestion of Raja of Khetri, he took the name of S wami Vivekanand.

  • To attain World Parliament on Religions, Vivekanand left Bombay in 31 May, 1893 and arrived in Chicago

  • on 11th September. Vivekanand did not return to India again until early 1897.

  • On 5th May, 1897, founded Ramakrishna Mission : two H.Q : Belur (Ben-gal) and Mayavati (Almora); he became President and Swami Brahmananda became head of the monastery.

  • He died at the age of 40.

  • Parivarjjika : the days of wandering

  • Important magazines : Udbodhan.

Prarthana Samaj

  • Atmarama Pandurang (1823-98) founded Prarthana Samaj.

  • Pratap Chander Majumdar published Subodh Patrika

  • Important followers: R.G.Bhandarkar. Jyotiba Phule. M.GRanade.

  • They popularised Pandh-arpur Saints;

  • S.P Kelkar founded Brahmo Samai of Bombay because of the influence of Dayananda.

  • In 1906. Vithal Ramaii Shinde, founded Depressed Classes Mission of India.

Manav Dharma Sabha

  • Founded by Durgaram Manchharam, Dadoba Pandurang Tarkhad.

  • Paramahansa Mandali : In 1849 organised by Dadoba

Arya Samaj

  • Founded by Dayanand Saraswati: (1824-1883)

  • He separated all Hindu scriptures into two categories: arsha and un-arsha

  • Preached 'purified hinduism', one that rejected

    1. Puranas

    2. Polytheism

    3. Idolatry

    4. the role of Brahman priests

    5. pilgrimages

    6. nearly all rituals

    7. the ban on the widow remarriage

  • One of his new disciples : Raja Jai Kesan Das, suggest to record his saying, resulted in the publication of the first edition of Satyartha Prakash (The Light og Truth).

  • In 187.4, he traveled to Gujarat and Bombay; on 10th April, 1875, he founded Arya Samaj (Noble Society); called "Go Back to Vedas"

  • Preached Suddhi Movement. .

  • Written Vedabhasya in Hindi and Sanskrit

  • Died on 30th October, in Ajmer

  • Lahore Samaj was the main wing; and its Executive Committee was called Antarang Sabha.

  • Lala Hansraja established a College and Sraddhanand started a Gurukul.

  • In Jallundar, Sraddh-ananda founded Arya Kanya Pathasala.

  • On March, 1902. The Gurukul Kangri opened in Hardwar.

Theosophical Society

  • Helena Petrovna Blavatsky and Henry Steel Olcott founded the society on 17th November, 1875.

  • In 1877, Blavatsky published Isis Unveiled.

  • In 188871lavatsky published The Secret Doctrine

  • Annie Besant (1847-1933) arrived in 1893, an Irish, joined Blavatsky and edited the magazine "Lucifer"

  • In 1898, Besant founded the Central college at Benaras.

  • In 1907, Colonel Olcott died and Annie Besant replaced him as President and shifted the headquarter to Adyar.

  • In 1933, Besant died and George Arundale became President from 1933 to 1945 and then followed by first Indian President C.Jinarajadasa from 1945 to 1953.

Minor Sects and Reformer

  1. Tariqh i Muhammadiyah: Sayyid Ahmed Barelwi of Rai Bareilly, Titu Mir (1782-1831) was his son

  2. Taa'yuni Movement (Bengal): Maulana Karamat Ali

  3. Madrassah i Rahmiyah Shaikh Abdur Rahman (1644-1718), succeeded by Abdul Aziz

  4. Barelwi Ulma: Ahmad Riza Khan

  5. Nirankari (Formless): Baba Dayal Das (1783-1855), he was succeeded by his son BabaDarbara Singh, his original name was Mul Rai (1814-1870), then succeeded by Rattan Chand and then by Gurdit Singh from 1909 to 1947.

  6. Namdhari: Baba Ram Singh, Balak Singh was his Guru

  7. Niti Prakash Sabha: KanhyalalAlakhdari (1873), Ludhiana

  8. Singh Sabha:

    In 1873, the first Sabha was held; founded by Khem Singh Bedi, Thakur Singh Sandhanwalia, Kanwar Vikrama Singh of Kapurtala, Giani Gian Singh

  9. Lahore Singh Sabha Prof. Gurumukh Singh and Bhai Ditt Singh

  10. Rahnumai Mazdayasnan Sabha Dadabhai Naoroji

  11. Radhaswami Satasang: Tulsi Rama or Shiva Dayal Sahib, later known as Swamiji Maharaja, his disciple was Saliq Ram, later known as Huzur Maharaj, published Prem Patra, Prem Bani, Radha Swami Matha Prakash.

  12. Deva Samaj: Shiva Narayana Agnihotri (An Engineer), later became Satyanand Agnihotri

  13. Vamchari Sampradaya: Ramasharan Pal, 1830

  14. Nigamagama Mandali: Swami Gyanananda, at Mathura in 1896

  15. Hari Gyan Mandir: Shraddha Ram at Phillaur

  16. Bharat Dharma Maha-mandal: Pandit Din Dayal Sharma, he had earlier founded Panchayat Taraqqi Humud, Published Magazine -Hariyana Mathur Akhbar, Kohinoor with Munshi Har Sukh Hai, he also founded Gan Varnashrama and Hitaishini Ganga Dharma Sabha

  17. Nadwah ul Ulama: Maulana Shibli Numani in 1894inLucknow

  18. Ahl-i-Haddith: Mohd. Syed Nazir and Hussain Wali Khan

  19. Ahl-i-Quran: Md. Abdullah Chakralvi

  20. Ahmadiya or Qadini: Mirza Gulam Ahmad (Gurudaspur, Punjab), called himself Krsna and Massiah Published Raidd i Niyog in 1895

  21. Deoband School: Muhammad Qasim Nanotawi and Rashid Ahmad Gangohi founded it in 1867 in Saharanpur, it was a branch of Wahabi.

Allgarh School

  • Founded by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817-98)

  • Established two Madarsa: at Muradabad and Gazipur

  • In 1870, published Tahzib ul Akhalaq and Asbad i Baghvat'

  • Third Madarsa was established in Aligarh, on 8th January, 1877 founded Mohammaden Anglo Oriental College, stone was laid by Lytton

  • Theodore Beck was his associate and was first Principal and succeeded by Morrison. Beck founded Union Indian Patriotic Association, Aligarh, 1888


  • Founded by Haji Shariyatullah, born in Shamail in Eastern Bengal, Maulana Murad was Guru

  • Declared India a land of Dar ul Hurb, it was a movement for the religious reforms.

  • Died in 1840, succeeded by his Mohd. Mushin or Dadu Miyan (1819-1860)

  • Headquarter: Bahadurpur and Barasat

Wahabl Movement

  • Founded Syed Ahmad (1786-1831) of Bareilly, based on the principles of Abdul Wahab (1703-1787)

  • In 1803, declared India as Dar ul Harb and pleaded to make it Dar ul Islam.

Pagal Panthi

  • Mir-Nasir-Ali-and most important was Titu Mir or Titu Mian, lived in Chandpur, disciple of Syed Ahmad, met at Mecca,

  • Important centre : Patna


  • In 1550, first Press was established by Portuguese.

  • In 1780, James Augustus Hicky started the first newspaper weekly in India:

  • This paper was very aggressive and attacked both Warren Hastings and Chief Justice (E. Impey); attacked the missionary.

  • Six more papers were started in Calcutta in between 1780rl793. One of the journal's editor was deported by Sir John Shore. Three newspapers were: India Gazette - 1780, Calcutta Gazette - 1784, Hurkaru

  • In 1785, in Madras, Madras Courrier weekly was started.

  • In 1795 :India Herald's editor was deported, because of writing against Prince of Wales;

  • Madras Gazette was banned.

  • In 1789, in Bombay first weekly was called Bombay Herald.

  • In !790, Bombay Courrier and in 1791, Bombay Gazette merged with Bombay Herald in 1792.

  • In 1818, Digdarshan was started as the first Bengali weekly by Marshman from Srirampore.

  • In 1818 (23 May), Samachar Darpan (Bengali) was started by Marshman from Sri Rampore.

  • In 1818 Bengal Jeti probably whose editor was Harachand Roy (Member of Atmiya Sabha).

  • On Dec. 4th, 1821, Samvad Kaumudi was started by Raja Ram Mohan Roy.

  • On 5th March, 1822, Samachar Chandrika, (which was initially, weekly, but was latter made twice a week) was started.

  • On Apr., 1822, Ram Mohan published, a weekly, Mirat -ul-Akhbar, in Persian language.

  • On 28th March, 1822 Jami-i-Jahanuma, a weekly, was started in Urdu and Persian language.

  • Bangadoot/Bengal Herald (weekly) was published in four languages : English, Bengali, Persian and Hindi. Its editor was R. Montegomery Martin and patron was Rammohan Roy, Dwarkanath Tagore.

  • In 1822, Bombay Samachar in Gujarati was published.

  • In 1837, Syed-ul-Akbhar, a weekly in Urdu was published.

  • In 1838, Dilli Akhbar, an Urdu weekly was published.

  • In 1838, English paper Bombay Times/ Times of India (Latter) was developed by Bombay Courrier.

  • In 1840, Hindu Patriot was started by Harishchandra Mukherjee.

  • In 1851, Gujarati fortnightly Rust Goftar was started by Dadabhai Naoroji.

  • In 1852, Akhbar -O-Saudagar, a Gujarati tri-weekly was started. Its editor was Dadabhai Kavasji.

  • In 1898, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar started Somaprakash in Bengali

  • In 1862, Indian Mirror was started. Initially its editor was Devendranath Tagore, followed by Keshavchandra Sen and Narendranath Sen.

  • In 1861, Indian Field (English), was started by Kishorichandra Mitra.

  • In 1862, Bengali was started by Girishchandra Ghosh.

  • In 1865, National Paper was started. Its editor was Navgopal Mitra.

  • Hindu Patriot was started by Kishori Das Pal.

  • On 28th September 1861, Bombay Times, Bombay Standard, Bombay Courrier and The Telegraph merged together to form Times of India. Its editor was Robert Knight.

  • In 1875, The Friend of India, a journal was started by Robert Knight. It was established by Carey, Ward and Marshman in 1818. Initially, it was monthly but, was latter changed to weekly,

  • In 1875, Statesman was started by Robert Knight (called Bayard of Indian Press). In 1890, Statesman and Friend of India merged to become Statesman.

  • In 1868, Madras Mail, the first evening newspaper was started.

  • In 1865, Pioneer was started from Allahabad.

  • In 1876, Military Gazette was published from Lahore.

  • In 1881, on request of S.N. Banerjee, Sardar Dayal Singh started a paper, Tribune in Lahore.

  • In 1858, Dwarkanath Vidyabhusan became the editor of the Bengali journal Somaprakash.

  • In 1864, Bhudev Mukhopadhyay started a monthly Shiksha Darpan O

  • Sambadasara.

  • Jogendranath Vidyabhu-shan started a newspaper Arya Darshan (on Italian Unification) in Bengali.

  • Hindu Hitaishini from Dhaka and Bharat Mihir from Mymen Singh was started.

  • On 20th Feb., 1868 -Amrit Bazar Patrika (formerly called Polomagura). Its first editor was Shishir Kumar Ghosh (Father of Indian Revolutionary Terrorism).

  • In 1871, Patrika was published.

  • On Jan.l, 1879, Bengali was revived by S.N. Banerjee.

  • In 1881, Bangabhasi was published.

  • In 1883, Sanjeevani was published.

  • In 1870, Keshavachandra Sen started Sulabh Samachar.

  • On 20th Sept. 1878, Hindu was started from Madras by G. Subramanium Ayyer as a weekly. Later, it was made tri-weekly in October 1883, when Kusturiangar became its editor. In 1889, it was made a daily.

  • On 4th Jan., 1881 Kesari (in Marathi) was started by Tilak and Agarkar

  • On 2nd Jan., 1881 Mahratta (in English) was started by Tilak and Kelkar.

  • In Jan. 1900, G.A. Nateshan published Indian Review from Madras.

  • After 1900, government's reaction became active.

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