Vedic Literature-Tvasta and Ritvij

Get unlimited access to the best preparation resource for IAS : Get detailed illustrated notes covering entire syllabus: point-by-point for high retention.

Tvasta: First Distributors

  • According to Sayana, who has written commentary on Rig Veda: Saneru means distribution or Sambhaktra; Sanugi was woman distributor; vajasati mentioned distribution of foods
  • Asvins used to protect from wolf (vrka)
  • Parivesaka was the distributor of food in Atharvaveda
  • Vrata means custom and conduct, it also means race called Panchavrata
  • Khadira or Khair also called Kattha was commonly found.
  • Babul most common.
  • Simsapa mentioned in Atharvaveda.
  • Skandhavaras means military camps
  • Atranjikhera, Hastinapur were Painted Grey Ware sites.
  • 7 types of brick found in Taittiriya samhita, 9 in Kathaka samhita, 11 in Maitrayani samhita
  • Royal share was 1/12 to 1/10 of the produce.
  • According to Gautama royal share in me beginning was 1/12 but gradually reduced to l/6m.
  • Vaisya were mostly agriculturist called Balihrt or Balikrt.
  • Ananyasukham (indebtedness) , Jumgita (untouchables) , Aghnya (not to be killed) ,


  • Specialists who participated in the yajna and helped in its completion
  • There were four types of Ritvij each for the four Vedas:
  • Hotra◊ Rigveda
  • Adhvaryu◊ Yajurveda
  • Udgatra◊ Samveda
  • Brahmana◊ Atharvaveda
  • First convert to monasticism were 5 persons called the Panchvargiya bhikshu who converted and formed the basis of monks:
  • Yasa, first
  • Vimala
  • Subahu
  • Purnjina
  • Gavampati
  • The Maruts are regarded to be sons of Rudra, but tiiey became the companions of Indra and are called Indrasakha.
  • Rig Veda has tribal character: Important heads: Caidya of Kasu,
  • Ugra and Jivagrbha (to deal with criminals) , Madh-yamasi (mediator of disputes)
  • Vedas are also known as Shruti (to hear) .
  • Each Veda has three parts:
    1. Samhita meaning mantra.
    2. Brahmana meaning Chapter (Each chapter deals with different people) .
    3. Aryanaka meaning Appendix (Called thus as they were compiled in the forests) .

Developed by: