Human Nutrition Carbohydrates Home Science YouTube Lecture Handouts Part 3

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Rate of Digestion

“Rate of Digestion” is related to the nature of the food itself, Physiological factors which include the extent of chewing, the concentration of amylase in the gut, and transit time through the stomach and small intestine.

Rate of Digestion

Dextrins

Polymers (Partial Hydrolysis) Small Units

  • Used in oral supplements for Tube feeding
  • Dextrins + Maltose + Glucose + Water = Liquid Glucose
  • Dextrins are larger molecules than sucrose or Glucose and have less osmotic effect, weight for weight and likely to cause osmolar diarrhea

Non-Starch Polysaccharides

  • NSP consists of the polysaccharides other than starch that are insoluble in 80 % ethanol
  • Plant NSP are often separated into two
    • cellulose
    • Non-cellulose
  • NSP is a very heterogeneous group whose main constituents՚ sugars are arabinose, xylose, mannose, Galactose, Glucose and Uranic acids.

Functions, Digestion & Absorption of Carbohydrates

Functions of Carbohydrates

  • Source of energy
  • Prevention of protein being oxidised = Protein sparing action
  • Acetyl CoA = Oxidation of fatty acids + oxaloacetic acid
  • Main source of energy for CNS & Prolonged Hypoglycemia can lead to irreversible damage to the brain tissue
  • During muscular contraction, Glycogen Lactic acid
  • During muscular recovery, Lactic acid Pyruvic acid Acetyl CoA
  • Role in Liver - Detoxifying action (Toxins - carbon tetrachloride, alcohol, bacteria) , Regulates protein & fat metabolism, stores carbs as Glycogen, oxidation of amino acids in liver is diminished if abundant supply of carbs available
  • Heart Muscle uses glucose as source of energy
  • The pentose ribose is present in RNA and in many nucleotides HMP pathway
  • Excess of carbs Fat in Adipose Tissue
  • Promotes growth of desirable Bacteria helps in synthesis of B-Complex Vitamins, Enhances the absorption of calcium
  • Contribution of dietary fibre (SCC) - helps in peristaltic movement & prevents degenerative diseases
  • Biosynthesis of Amino acids
  • Precursors of many components (Glycoproteins, Glycolipids) , structure of cell membrane

Digestion & Absorption of Carbohydrates

Digestion & Absorption of Carbohydrates
Digestion & Absorption of Carbohydrates

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