Human Nutrition Carbohydrates Home Science YouTube Lecture Handouts Part 4

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Factors Affecting Absorption

  • Rate at which the CHO enters the small intestine affects its absorption
  • Mobility of stomach, control of the duodenal sphincter muscle & Pyloric valve
  • Type of food mixture
  • Enteritis, Celiac diseases, Diarrhoea
  • Intact plant cell walls
  • Nibbling (Increased meal frequency)
  • Abnormal endocrine activity where anterior Pituitary & Thyroid is necessary for absorption

Metabolism of Carbohydrates, Glycaemic Index & Glycaemic Load

Metabolism of Carbohydrates, Glycaemic Index

Glycaemic Index (What Type of Food?)

Glycaemic Index

  • According to Jenkins (1981) glycaemic index is a ranking of foods based on the Postprandial glucose response compared with a reference food
  • When the glycaemic index is high the pancreas produces excess insulin, the substance that conducts glucose into the cells. After years of glucose and insulin overload, the cells can become insulin resistant and may no longer allow insulin to easily push glucose inside them. This keeps blood glucose levels high, forcing the pancreas to make more insulin.
  • Adding Fat & Protein rich foods are known to increase insulin secretion without augmenting glucose concentrations.
  • The more processed a food is, the higher the glycaemic response it will produce

Glycaemic Index of Selected Foods

Glycaemic Index of Selected Foods
High Glycaemic Food85 or greaterSugars, Bread, cornflakes, oatmeal, puffed rice, watermelons, raisins, potato, carrot
Moderate Glycaemic Food60 to 85Rice, pasta, Bread, Bananas, orange juice, Grapes, yams, sweet corn, potato chips, baked beans, peas, lentils, ice cream
Low Glycaemic Food< 60Fructose, all cereals with bran, apples, cherries, pears, plums, Milk, yogurt, lentils, dried apricots

Glycaemic Load (How Much Food?)

Glycaemic Load

Watter Willet of Harvard University pioneered the concept of Glycaemic load

Watter Willet of Harvard University Pioneered the Concept of Glycaemic Load
Low Glycaemic Load10 or < 10
Medium Glycaemic Load11 to 19
High Glycaemic Load20 or > 20

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