Cave Architecture: Bhimbetk, Kanheri, Jogeshwari, Mandapeshwar and Others for Competitive Exams

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Suitability of Cave Architecture

  • Primarily developed in western ghats
  • Rock architecture was suited to India, for the country had plenty of Rocky Mountains.
  • Structures excavated in stone most durable

Bhimbetka Caves

Bhimbetka Caves
  • Near Bhopal, M. P.
  • Buddhist site
  • More than shetlers
  • groups
  • Bhimbetka group
  • Lakha juar group
  • Rock paintings dated back to stone age era years

Kanheri Caves

Kanheri Caves
  • Near Mumbai
  • Time period nd century to th century.
  • More than caves.
  • Belong to first phase-Hinayana Buddhism.

Jogeshwari Caves

Jogeshwari Caves
  • Within the island of salsette
  • Time period second half of the 8th century.
  • Belongs to the 1st stage of Mahayana Buddhist architecture.
  • Brahmanical influence is evident.
  • Shrines are isolated and stand in the centre of cruciform hall with more than one entrance.

Mandapeshwar Caves

Mandepshwar Caves
  • Also known as Montepezir.
  • Contemporary with Jogeshwari caves
  • Only brahmanical caves to be converted in Christian shrine.
  • Ruins of Old Portuguese church is found.
  • Franciscan monastery nearby.
  • Caves have sculptures of Nataraja, Sadashiva and a splendid sculpture of Ardhanarishvara.
  • It contained the largest Mandapa and a prominent Garbhagriha

Karle, Bhaja and Bedsa Caves

Karle Caves
  • Karle caves Hinayana period main feature chaitya, its entrance, and arrangement of the sun window.
  • Bhaja caves: 18 caves built for Buddhist nuns. around 2 B. C. Last cave fine sculptures prince dancing on the elephant, dancing couple.
  • Bedsa caves: belong to later period than bhaja caves smaller chaitya than Karle but quite similar to it.