Different Types of Capital: Bull, Mauran and Sarnath for Competitive Exams

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Different Types of Capital

  • a Lotus Column (Bell) b Lotus Column (Bud) c Papyrus Column (Bud) d Papyrus Column (Bell)
Lotus Columm Bull and Design of Pillar
  • 3rd B. C.
  • mixture of Persian and Indian elements
  • lotus capital
  • The motifs on the abacus are beautiful decorative elements like the rosette, palmette, and the acanthus ornaments none of them is Indian.

Bull Capital of Rampurva, Bihar

Bull Capital of Rampurva, Bihar
  • Bull
  • Masterpiece of Indian Craftsmanship.
  • A humped bull is well modelled

Features of Mauryan Pillar

  • Uniformity in all pillars of Mauryan art
  • Chunar sandstone was used.
  • Monolith shaft
  • Use of animal
  • Different types of abacus round, rectangular, square etc.
  • Edicts were inscribed generally on abacus, sometimes on the shaft, too.
  • Achaemenian influence Bell shaped capital.
  • Iranian/Persian influence clusterous/Highly polished pillars
  • Difference between Mauryan and achamanian pillars
  • Mauryan pillars are monolith
  • Achamanian pillars are made from different stones

Sarnath Pillar

Sarnath Pillar
  • Most remarkable
  • Highly polished monolithic lion capital , which is now the Emblem of the Government of India.
  • Represents four roaring lions back to back facing the four cardinal directions.
  • The round abacus is decorated with four dharmachakras or wheels of law, alternating with an elephant, a bull, a horse, and a lion.
  • Alternating with an elephant, a bull, a horse, and a lion, all carved with masterly skill.
  • The abacus is supported by a bell-shaped base consisting of a lotus with dharma chakra.
  • Invested with a great power and dignity, and reveals the aristocratic and international nature of Mauryan art.
  • It was only Asoka who started making extensive use of stone for sculptures and great monuments whereas the previous tradition consisted of working in wood and clay.
  • The animals on the abacus will reveal that these animals are not static or rigid.
  • They have been very keenly and lovingly observed in nature and are very naturalistically represented, full of life.