External and Internal, Concerns, Political Instability in Neighbourhood

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  • Any threat to harmony and unity is a threat to security

  • Secuenvir determined by a multitude of socio-economic-polite factors

  • Conventional and non-conventional security threats

  • Conventional: external and internal


  • Violence in Nepal, CBT, Pakistan, China (double digit growth of its defence budget, helping Pakistan’s nuclear project, string of pearls, recently destroyed its own satellite using a missile), Afghanistan

  • India located uniquely between golden crescent and golden triangle.


  • Increase indirect violence

  • Terrorism

  • Illegal immigration

  • WMD

Political Instability in Neighbourhood

  • Maritime security

  • Refer notes


Terrorism, Naxalism, Insurgency are three major concerns

Steps Needed

  • Maintain friendly relationship with other nations

  • Maintain friendly relationship with Islamic nations

  • Ensure security environment in SA as a whole

  • Strengthen participation in UN

  • Secure membership of more regional organisation

  • Re-orient NAM towards security

  • Universal disarmament

  • Make NIA into a coordinating agency

  • Surveillance and communication equipment must be upgraded

  • Adequate sealift and airlift capabilities along with a credible and sustainable trans-national capability should be present in the country

  • Inadequacy in nation’s satellite imagery-based surveillance capabilities must be mitigated

  • UAVs can play a greater role in the surveillance especially when they have night vision and thermal imaging capabilities

  • There is an increasing dependence on army to fight insurgency. Army should not be brought in for internal security. Para military forces must be strengthened

  • Need for effective border management policy which covers not only terrorist infiltration and illegal arms supply, but also prevents illegal immigration, smuggling and the flow of narcotics

  • Should try to become part of various groups so as to overcome the constraints of technology denial regimes

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