Law and Culture: Constitution – 3 Articles to Preserve Natural Heritage

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Constitution – 3 Articles to Preserve Natural Heritage

Constitution – 3 Articles

Article 29: ‘Protection of Interests of Minorities’ – right to conserve

  • Allows tribal population of Chattisgarh, Rajasthan, NE states and Odisha
  • Allows numerically small population of Parsis

Article 49: ‘Protection of Monuments and Places and Objects of National Value’

  • Obligation of state
  • Be of national importance

Article 51 A (f) : ‘Value and preserve the rich heritage of Indian culture’

  • Fundamental duties of citizens
  • People to value and preserve heritage
  • Culture reflects changing society

Major Acts

Major Acts
  • Indian Treasure Trove Act, 1878: To protect and preserve treasures found accidently as once the Britisher took over any principality by British Government
  • Ancient Monument Preservation Act, 1904: by British Govt. Amended in 1932. In 1958, Central government enacted The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Site and Remains Act. The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Site and Remains (Amendment and Validation) Act 2010.
  • Antiquities Export Control Act, 1947: what can and cannot be shipped outside India. License by Director General and power to decide
  • The Ancient and Historical Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains (Declaration of National Importance) Act, 1951: 450 monuments in original list and later revised in 1958 & 2010.
    • Central government has power to declare any monuments or archaeological site of ancient and medieval times.
    • Director General have authority to presume the guardianship, purchase or take lease of any such site or monument.
    • The Act also provides the Government and Director General the power to acquire antiquities for their preservation.
  • Delivery of Books (Public Libraries) Act of 1954: defines book and newspaper and copy to be submitted to 4 national libraries
  • Antiquities and Art Treasures Act, 1972: Control of moveable cultural property – object, antiquities
  • Public Records Act, 1993: By Department of Culture to permanently preserve records in public domain
    • Nominate one of its own officers as the ‘Record Officer’ and ‘Record Room’ in their office space.
    • In every 25 years, an appraisal in consultation with National Archives of India.