Life Sciences Glossary: From Amitosis to Atavism and Atherosclerosis

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Amitosis

Nuclear division by a process other than mitosis.

Amniocentesis

Procedure for withdrawing a sample of fluid around the developing embryo for examination of chromosomes and other tests.

Amphimixis

The fusion of male and female pronuclear during fertilization (syngamy) .

Amputation

The surgical removal of a part of the body.

Amylase

An enzyme that break down starch into maltose.

Anabolism

Constructive metabolism whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones.

Anaerobic

In the absence of air or oxygen.

Analogy

Similarity of function.

Androgens

A group of vertebrate male sex hormones.

Anemia

A condition resulted by decrease in RBCs or hemoglobin of the blood.

Angina Pectoris

Chest pain caused by partial block of coronary artery.

Angiotensin

A protein synthesized by liver causing increased blood pressure.

An Isogametes

Gametes of a species that differ in form and size.

Anthrax

A disease affecting primarily farm animals such as cattle, goats, sheep, pigs, etc. , caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthraces.

Antibiotic

An antimicrobial agent derived from cultures of micro- organism or produced semi- synthetically.

Antibody

An immunoglobulin usually circulating in the blood specific to an antigen.

Anticoagulant

A substance that prevents or delays coagulation of the blood.

Antigen

Any substance that when introduced into the tissues or blood induces the formation of antibodies or reacts with them.

Antiseptic

A substance that inhibits the growth and reproduction of micro- organisms.

Antiserum

Serum of an animal or human containing antibodies.

Antitoxin

Antibody that neutralizes a specific toxin.

Antivenin

Venom- neutralizing antibodies given as an emergency first aid for various snake and insect bites.

Apnea

Temporary cessation of breathing.

Apo Enzyme

Protein part of a holoenzyme usually associated with a cofactor.

Appendage

A part or thing attached to the body:

Aqueous Humor

The water fluid that fills the anterior cavity of the eye.

Arachidonic Acid

An essential fatty acid that is a component of lecithin.

Arachnoid

The middle of the three meninges of the brain.

Arboreal

Living in trees.

Arthritis

Any inflammatory condition of the joint characterized by pain and swelling.

Arthritis

A joint of articulation.

Ascorbic Acid

A water- soluble vitamin present in citrus fruits, tomatoes, berries, etc. (Vitamin C) .

Asexual

Without distinct sexual organs; not involving formation of gametes.

Asphyxia

Unconsciousness due to interference with the oxygen supply of the blood.

Aspirin

A drug prescribed to reduce fever and the relief of pain and inflammation.

Assimilation

Absorption and building up of digested nutrients into complex organic protoplasmic materials.

Astigmatism

An optical defect due to irregularity of the lens of cornea causing the image to be out of focus and producing faulty vision.

Atavism

The sudden reappearance of some ancestral features (reversion) .

Atherosclerosis

Arterial disorder characterized by yellowish plaques of cholesterol, lipids and cellular debris in the inner layers of arteries.

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