Life Sciences Glossary: From Competition to Cytoskeleton and Cytosol

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Competition

A relationship between two organisms in which both organisms compete with each other.

Complementary DNA (cDNA)

A DNA molecule that is complementary to a MRNA molecule, synthesized in vitro by reverse transcriptase.

Conception

Fertilization.

Condyle

A rounded projection at the end of a bone.

Cones

Light- sensitive cells in the retina of the eye that respond to different Colours of light.

Congenital

Present since birth, as an inherent and congenital defect.

Conjunctivitis

Inflammation of the delicate membrane covering the eyeball and lining the eyelids.

Consumers

Organisms that is bound to obtain energy in the form of organic matter.

Contagious

Communicable, such as a disease that may be transmitted by direct or indirect contact.

Contraception

A method for the prevention of pregnancy.

Conium

Epithelial layer of dead, keratinized cells.

Corticosteroids

Steroid hormones produced by the adrenal gland.

Cranium

The part of skull that encloses and protects the brain.

Crenation

The conversion of normal RBCs into shrunken, knobbed, starry forms when blood is mixed with hypertonic salt solution.

Crepuscular

A life- style characterized by activity mostly during the hours around dawn and dusk.

Cretinism

Severe congenital thyroid deficiency during childhood leading to physical and mental retardation.

Cristae

Folding of the mitochondrial inner membrane and the sites of enzymes of oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport.

Crop

A thin – walled part of the alimentary canal that serves to store the ingested food.

Crossing Over

Exchange of homologous chromosome segments leading to genetic recombination.

Cursorily

Adapted for running on land.

Cuticle

A protective, non- cellular organic layer secreted by the external epithelium (hypodermis) of many invertebrates.

Cutis

The dermis or lower layer of the skin.

Cyanobacteria

Photosynthetic prokaryotes; also called blue- green algae; cyanophytes.

Cyanosis

Slightly bluish or dark purple discoloration of the skin and the mucous membrane due to an oxygen deficiency.

Cycloid

The circulation of protoplasm within a cell.

Cysteine

A non- essential amino acid found in many proteins in the body, including keratin.

Cyst Cercus

The larva of tape work with an invaginated and introverted scolex.

Cystic Fibrosis

A genetic disorder of exocrine gland producing abnormally thick secretions of mucus.

Cystitis

Inflammation of the urinary bladder.

Cytochromes

Electron- transport intermediates containing home (or related prophetic groups) in which the iron undergoes valence changes during electron transfer.

Cytogenetic

Study of the cellular structures and mechanisms associated with genetics.

Cytokines

Growth factors that regulate blood cells and lymphocytes.

Cytokinesis

The division of the cytoplasm during cell division.

Cytoplasm

All cellular material within the plasma membrane, excluding the nucleus.

Cytosine

A pyrimidine base occurring in DNA and RNA. Pairs with guanine in DNA.

Cytoskeleton

An intracellular framework comprised of filaments and microtubules.

Cytosol

The fluid portion of the cytoplasm in which the organelles are suspended.

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