Life Sciences Glossary: From Granulocyte to Geographic Isolation

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Granulocyte

Leucocyte without cytoplasmic granules, such as monocyte or lymphocyte.

Galaxy

The aggregate of celestial bodies of the universe to which the Sun belongs, including the luminous band of stars called the Milky Way.

Galvanized Lran Sheets

  • Are coated with a layer of zinc by dipping it in molten zinc. Litharge (Lead monoxide)
  • Is used in the manufacture of glass, paints, varnishes and glazes. Only mercury and bromic are liquid (elements) at room temperature.

Galvanizing

Means the coating of metal with zinc; this helps to prevent rusting and corrosion of metal due to the resistance of zinc to these processes.

Galactosemia

A genetic autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme GA lactose-I- phosphate luridly transferees.

Gall- Bladder

A bladder or sac which receives, and stores bile secreted by liver in a vertebrate.

Gamete

A male or female reproductive cell (sperm or ovum) .

Gametocyte

The mother cell of a gamete.

Gametogenesis

The formation of gametes.

Gametophyte

The phase of the plant life cycle that bears the gametes.

Ganglion

A mass of nervous tissue containing many cell bodies and synapses that lies outside the central nervous system.

Gangrene

Death of tissue accompanied by bacterial invasion and putrefaction, usually due to blood vessel obstruction.

Gastrin

A polypeptide hormone secreted by the pylorus of stomach.

Gastro Dermis

Lining of the coelenteron of cnidarians.

Gastrula

The stage of embryonic development of an animal succeeding blastula.

Gauze՚s Rule

Two species with identical ecological requirements cannot coexist in the same place.

Gammadion

The process of cells reproduction by budding.

Gem Mule

An asexual reproductive body of some sponges.

Gene

A unit of inheritance (DNA) located in a fixed position on a chromosome.

Gene Amplification

An increase in the number of copies of a gene resulting from the repeated replication of a region of DNA.

Gene Flow

The migration of genes into a population from other populations by inter breeding.

Gene Library

A collection of all genetic information of a species, obtained from cloned fragments.

Gene Pool

The sum total of all different alleles in the breeding members of a population at a given time.

Gene Splicing

The process by which a segment of DNA is attached to or inserted in a strand of DNA from another source.

Gene Therapy

The treatment of inherited diseases by introducing wild- type copies of the defective gene.

Genetic Code

The set 0f 64 nucleotide triplet՚s that specify the 20amino acids and polypeptide chain initiation and termination.

Genetic Counselling

A service which provides people with information concerning the risk of having genetically abnormal progeny.

Genetic Disease

Any genetically conditioned disorder ultimately caused by a particular gene- determined biochemical defect.

Genetic Drift

Any change, either directed or undirected in a gene frequency in a population.

Genetics

The science of heredity and variation.

Genome

All of the genes in a haploid set of chromosomes.

Genotype

The genetic constitution of an organism.

Genus

A group of related species with taxonomic rank between family and species.

Geographic Isolation

The separation between populations caused by geographic distance or geographic barriers.

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