Life Sciences Glossary: From Mass to Metamorphosis and Metaphase

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Mass

It is the quantity of matter contained in a body.

Mass Number

Total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom, which is almost equal to atomic weight.

Matter

Whatever occupies space, possesses weight and can affect one or more of our senses is called matter. A matter is made up of molecules.

Momentum

Means the quantity of motion in a body measured by the product of mass and velocity.

Mono- Chromatic Light

Light of a single colour (more precisely wavelength) is known as simple or homogeneous or monochromatic light.

Mysis

Bursting of a cell by the destruction of the cell membrane.

Macromolecule

A large molecule, term used to identify molecules of protein, polysaccharide or nucleic acid.

Macronutrient

A chemical element required in relatively large quantities form the blood monocyte.

Maggot

Larval stage in the metamorphosis of the common housefly.

Major Histocompatibility Antigens

A complex set of cell- surface macromolecules that allow the immune system to distinguish foreign or “non- self” cells from “self” cells.

Major Histocompatibility Complex

The large cluster of genes that encode the major his to- compatibility antigens in animals. Called HLA locus in humans.

Malaria

A serious infections disease caused by plasmodium, a protozoan parasite.

Malignant Tumor

A tumor that invades normal tissue and spreads throughout the body.

Malleus

One of the three icicles in the middle ear resembling a hammer, connected to tympanic membrane and transmits sound vibrations to the incus.

Malnutrition

Any disorder concerning low available or nutrition.

Mandible

A large bone constituting the lower jaw inn human beings.

Marasmus

Extreme malnutrition due to lack of adequate calories and protein.

Maxilla

One of the upper jawbones in vertebrates; one of the head appendages in arthropods.

Measles

An acute high contagious disease involving the respiratory tract and cutaneous rash caused by a paramyxovirus.

Mega Oblast

An abnormally large nucleated immature erythrocyte.

Meiosis

The specialized pair of cell divisions that reduces the chromosome number from diploid (2n) to haploid (n) during gamete formation.

Melanin

A dark or brown pigment that occurs naturally in the hair, skin and in the iris and the choroid of the eye.

Melatonin

A hormone secreted by the pineal gland decreasing the pigmentation of the skin.

Memory Cells

Population of long – lived B lymphocytes remaining after initial immune response that provides for secondary response.

Menarche

The first menstruation in girls that usually occurs between 10 and 15 years of age.

Meninges, Sing Meninx

Any of three membranes (arachnoid, diameter, diameter) that envelop the vertebrate brain and spinal cord.

Menopause

The termination of the menstruation that usually occurs after 45 years of age.

Mesoderm

The middle germ layer formed in the gastrula between the ectoderm and endoderm.

Messenger RNA

A form of ribonucleic acid that carries genetic information from DNA to the ribosome and used during protein synthesis.

Metabolism

Sum total of all chemical and biological processes in living cells by which energy is provided and used.

Metamorphosis

A marked structural change from a larva into an adult.

Metaphase

That stage of cell division in which the chromosomes are most distinct and arranged in an equatorial plate; stage following prophase and preceding anaphase.

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