Life Sciences Glossary: From Tachycardia to Tympanum and Typhoid Fever

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Tachycardia

A condition of increased heart/pulse rate.

Tactile

Relating to the sense of touch.

Taiga

Large tracts of coniferous forests with long cold winters and short summer, most typical in Canada and Siberia.

Taxis

A movement response to an environmental stimulus.

Taxonomy

Study of principles of scientific classification of living organisms.

Teflon

Which is resistant to the action of acids, alkalis and oxidizing agents, is a compound (tetra Fluor ethylene) of fluorine.

T Cell

A type of lymphocyte important in cellular immune response.

Template

A model, meld, or pattern; DNA acts as a template for RNA synthesis.

Tendon

  • The fibrous connective tissue which attaches muscle to bone. Territory:
  • A space that an animal defends against others of the same species.

Tertiary Structure

The three- dimensional folding of a macromolecule into a complex structural from, brought about by interactions among side chains of amino acids.

Test Cross

The cross of an individual (generally of dominant phenotype) with one having recessive phenotype.

Testosterone

A steroid hormone produced by the testis.

Tetanus

A fatal infection of central nervous system caused by an exotoxin produced by the anaerobic bacterium; Clostridium tetanic; painful spasms of the muscles resulting in lockjaw.

Tetanic

A condition characterized by cramps, convulsions and sharp flexion of the wrist and ankle joints due to hyperparathyroidism or abnormality of calcium metabolism.

Thalassemia

A genetically inherited haemolytic anaemia due to inability to produce beta chain of haemoglobin.

Therapist

Extinct Mesozoic mammal- like reptile from which the true mammals evolved.

Thermocline

A short zone of water separating upper warmer and lighter water from lower colder and heavier water in a lake or sea.

Thiamine

Water- soluble vitamin B1 forming a coenzyme necessary for the breakdown of carbohydrates.

Thrombosis

The formation of a clot within an unbroken blood vessel of the body.

Thymine

A pyrimidine base occurring in DNA which pairs with adenine.

Thymus

A single unpaired endocrine gland located in thorax secreting an immunologic hormone, thyroxin.

Tonsil

Disease caused by a small rounded mass of lymphoid tissue in the oropharynx.

Tot Potency

The property of a cell (or cells) whereby it develops into a complete and differentiated organism.

Toxicology

The scientific study of poisons, their detection, their effects and methods of treatment.

Toxoid

Chemically or physically modified toxin that is no longer harmful but retains immunogenicity.

Trachea

The windpipe joining the nasal cavity to lungs.

Trachoma

A chronic infections disease of the eye caused by the bacterium chlamydia trachomatis.

Transcription

Synthesis of messenger RNA from a DNA template.

Transgene

A foreign or modified gene that has been introduced into an organism.

Transplant

Transfer of an organ or tissue from one person to another or from one body part to another.

Tricuspid Valve

The heart valve situated between the right atrium and right ventricle.

Triplet

A group of three successive nucleotides in RNA (or DNA) forming a genetic code specifying a particular amino acid in the synthesis of protein or polypeptide chain.

Trisomy

An individual having one extra chromosome of a set (2n + 1) .

Trophic Level

A step in the flow of energy through an ecosystem.

Tropomyosin

A fibrous protein that binds actin filaments and regulates contraction by blocking the interaction of actin and myosin.

Troponin

Complex globular proteins positioned at intervals along the actin filament of skeletal muscle. It serves as a calcium- dependent switch in muscle contraction.

Tuberculosis

A chronic bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Tundra

The region within the Arctic circle characterized by absence of trees, short growing season and mostly frozen soil.

Turner՚s Syndrome

XO female (sterile) in human beings.

Tympanum

A thin membrane found between the external auditory meatus and the middle ear: eardrum.

Typhoid Fever

A bacterial infection usually caused by salmonella typhoid, characterized by headache, cough, watery diarrhea, rash, high fever, etc.

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