Life Sciences Glossary: From Ultracentrifuge to Wild Type and Wave-Length

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Ultracentrifuge

Centrifuge capable of producing rotor speeds up to 80,000 rpm and able to rapidly sediment tiny particles and macromolecules.

Ultrafiltration

A type of filtration sometimes conducted under pressure, through filters with very minute՚s pores, as used by an artificial kidney.

Ultrasound

Sound waves at the very high frequency of over 20,000 cycles per second, used in fatal monitoring and imaging of internal organs.

Ultraviolet Light

Electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength shorter than that of visible light (390 - 200 mm) . Causes DNA base- pair mutations and chromosome breaks.

Universal Donor

A person with blood of type O, Rh negative.

Urea

  • Is a nitrogenous fertilizer.
  • Water gas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. It is produced by blowing steam though layers of incandescent coal.

Universal Recipient

A person with blood type AB.

Urethra

The tube from the urinary bladder to the exterior.

Urticarial

A skin reaction to certain foods, drugs or other substances to which a person may be allergic.

Uterus

The organ in female mammals in which the embryo develops and protected till birth.

Uvea

The fibrous unit beneath the sclera of eye that includes the iris, the culinary body and the choroid coat.

Vaccination

Material containing dead or attenuated micro- organisms to induce immunity.

Variation

Differences among individuals of a group or species that cannot be ascribed to age, sex or position in the life cycle.

Vasectomy

Process of male sterilization involving the surgical removal of a portion of vas deferens.

Vasomotor

Pertaining to the nerves and muscles that control the diameter of the of blood vessel.

Vasopressin

A posterior pituitary hormone that decreases the urine production by increasing the absorption of water by rental tubules, antidiuretic hormone.

Vector

An organism that carries and transmits disease or parasite from one host to the next; also, an agent such as bacteriophage or plasmid that carries recombinant DNA.

Venereal Disease

A contagious sexually transmitted disease usually acquired by sexual inter- course or genital contact.

Venom

A poisonous fluid substance secreted by some snakes, arthropods and other animals and transmitted by their bites or stings.

Ventilation

The process by which gases are moved into and out of the lungs, breathing.

Ventricles

Cavities in heart or brain.

Vestigial Organ

A rudimentary organ that may have been well developed in some ancestor.

Villi

Small finger- like, vascular process on the wall of small intestine.

Viroid

A small infective segment of nucleic acid, usually RNA.

Virus

A nucleic acid particle coated with protein that functions as an obligate intracellular parasite.

Viscera

Internal organs in the body cavity.

Vitamin

An organic compound essential in small quantities for normal physiologic and metabolic functioning of the body.

VNTR (Variable Number Tandem Repeat)

A short DNA sequence that is present as tandem repeats and in highly variable copy number.

Western Blot

The transfer of proteins from an electrophoretic net to a cellulose or nylon membrane by means of an electric force.

White Matter

The part of central nervous system consisting mainly of militated nerve fibres, some unmyelinated nerve fibres and a network of neuroglia.

Water Pollution

Important paramtches. Considered for assessing water pollution are Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) , Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) , Dissolved Oxygen (DO) content, pH (Hydrogen- ion concentration) , which determine whether the water is acidic, alkaline or neutral in turbidity.

Wild Type

  • The most common phenotype in natural breeding populations. Wisdom tooth:
  • The last molar tooth in man appearing late in life; a vestigial structure from evolutionary point of view.

Wave-Length

The distance covered by the wave in a time in which a particle of the medium executes one vibration, is called wave- length.

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