Life Sciences Glossary: Typhus, Q and Trench Fever, Trachoma

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Typhus Fever

  • Typhus fever is caused by Rickettsia prowazekii.
  • The disease is transmitted from the faucal matter of head and body lice of the genus pedicels.
  • The French scientist Charles J. H. Nicolle in 1928 got Nobel Prize for the studies on the cause and transmission of endemic typhus fever.

Q Fever

  • The term Q fever was first used by E. H. Derrick in 1937 to describe an illness that broke out among workers at a meat- packing plant in Australia.
  • The ‘Q’ may have been derived either from ‘query’ meaning unknown, or from Queensland, the province in which the disease occurred.
  • Q fever is caused by the rickettsia Coxiella brunette; the disease common among dairy cows, goats and sheep, may be transmitted to man by airborne dust particles and droplets.

Trench Fever

  • Trench fever is caused by Rochalimaea Quintana and transmission takes place by head and body lice.
  • This disease was common among troops in the trenches of World War l and World War II.

Trachoma

  • Trachoma is an infection of the conjunctivae of the eye acquired by Chlamydia trachomatis.
  • Chlamydia trachomatis on exposure to new- born during birth may lead to chlamydial pneumonia.

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

  • The agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever is Rickettsia.
  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever is transmitted by ticks belonging to the genera Amblyomma and Dermacentor.

Protozoan Diseases Some Common Protozoan Diseases

Protozoan Diseases Some Common Protozoan Diseases
DiseasePathogenTransmission
AmoebiasisEndameba HistolyticWater and food contamination
GiardiasisGiardia Lamellawater and contact
TrichomoniasisTrichomonasSexual contact
Sleeping SicknessTrypanosomeBite of tsetse fly
Kala- AzarLeis maniaBite of sands fly
BalantidiosisBalantidium Coliwater and food contamination
MalariaPlasmodiumBite of female Anopheles Mosquito

Helminthes Infestation

Some Common Helminthic Disease

Some Common Helminthic Disease
DiseasePathogenTransmission
BilharziaSchisosomadrinking water
TaeniasisTania PaginatePork coup - Tion/Beef consumption
AscariasisSafarisWater and food Contamination
AncylotomiasisAncylostomaActive Penetration
ElephantiasisfilarialBite of female Culet mosquito
TrichinosisTrichineliaPork Consumption
Guinea- wormRanunculusWater Contamination
Eye wormLoa loanDeerflies

Some Common Fungal Diseases

Some Common Fungal Diseases
DiseasePathogenTransmission
TiresiasMicrospore Trichophyton EpidermisContact with hytonhyphal fragments
CrptococcosisCryptococcus Neoformansairborne
Candidiasiscandidaairborne
Vaginitisalbino՚ssexual contact Skin contact
HistoplasmosisHistoplasma CapsulateAirborne spores
Athlete՚s footTrichophytonAirborne skin Contact
BlastyomycosisBalstomyces DermatitisAirborne spores
Aspergillosis OtomycxosisAspergillums fumigatesAirborne Spores
SporotrichosisSporothrix StencilAirborne Puncture Wound spores
Madura footMarcella I MycetomAirborne Puncture wound Spores
Dhole itch (Contact Dermatitis)SeveralDirect contact different fungi

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)

  • Venereal diseases (VD) or sexually transmitted diseases (STD) represent a group of infectious diseases that are spread primarily through sexual intercourse.
  • The term ‘venereal’ comes from Venus, goddess of love.
  • Unlike syphilis and gonorrhea, genital herpes is incurable.
  • Herpes simpler 11 causes painful blisters on the prepuce, grams penis and penile shaft in males, and on the vulva or high up in the vagina in females.
  • The blisters disappear and reappear, but the disease itself is still present in the body.

Diseases Spread through Blood Transfusion

Diseases which spread through blood transfusion include hepatitis and AIDS.

Hepatitis

  • Hepatitis is a viral disease; two subgroups are hepatitis type A virus (HAV) and hepatitis type B virus (HBV) .
  • The diseases is called epidemic or infectious hepatitis; the usual mode of transmission is by the faucal- oral route.
  • One of the largest waterborne outbreaks occurred in New Delhi in 1955 - 56 resulting in the death of about 4000 people.
  • Children and young adults are susceptible to HAV; no vaccines are acceptable.
  • HBV causes serum hepatitis, it is most frequently transmitted by blood, products of blood or blood- contaminated instruments.
  • Only adults are susceptible to HBV, but vaccines are available.
  • HBV infection also runs a high risk of liver cancer.

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