Linguitics: Basic Introduction for Competitive Exams 2020

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Definition

  • Linguistics is a scientific study of a language.

Linguists Mainly Deals With:-

  • Production of speech

  • Structure of language

  • Language acquisition

  • History of language

  • Change in language

5 Main Fields of Linguistics

Image of Main Fields of Linguistics

Image of Main Fields of Linguistics

Image of Phonetics

Image of Phonetics

  • Study of speech sounds.

  • Deals with physical properties of sound

  • 3 main processes:-

  • Physiological production

  • Auditory reception

  • Neurophysiological perception

Image of Phonology

Image of Phonology

  • Studies the way sounds function.

  • Deals with structure of sound, phonemes, stress pattern, syllables an intonation.

  • For example:

  • ‘Bag’ = /bæɡ/

  • i.e. /b/ + /æ/ + /ɡ/

  • Here, /b/ , /æ/ , /ɡ/ are different phonemes

Image of Morphology

Image of Morphology

  • Study of words and their formation.

  • ‘Morpheme’ is smallest meaningful linguistic unit.

  • Example:

  • “ un-avail-able”

  • “un” and “able” are affixes

  • “avail” is morpheme

Image of Syntax

Image of Syntax

  • Structure of language

  • Each language has its one sentence structure.

  • Helps us to understand the structure better and form sentences that are grammatical.

Image of Semintax

Image of Semintax

  • Study of meaning of words and phrases

  • Some grammatical sentences can be meaningless.

  • Example:-

  • Noam Chomsky’s sentence

  • “The colorless green ideas sleep furiously.”

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