Monoclonal Antibodies for Autoimmune Diseases: Tocilizumab & Covid-19 YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Monoclonal Antibodies for Autoimmune Diseases: Tocilizumab & Covid-19

Title: Monoclonal Antibodies Tocilizumab & Covid-19

  • A monoclonal antibody is a type of protein made in a lab that can bind to substances in the body. They can be used to regulate parts of the immune response that are causing inflammation. They are being used to treat cancer. They can carry drugs, toxins or radioactive substances directly to cancer cells.
  • Therapeutic superstars are monoclonal antibody.
  • To create a monoclonal antibody, researchers vaccinate an animal (or possibly a human) to stimulate the production of antibodies against a particular substance. The body will gradually make antibodies that are more and more effective against that antigen. These antibody-producing cells are then filtered out of white blood cells and put into a dish to see which cells bind the antigen best, Goodman said. The cell that binds the best is then isolated it is an antibody-producing factory, specifically honed to churn out one super-selective antibody.
  • From there, that cell is fused to a blood cancer cell, producing something called a hybridoma. This hybridoma, or monoclone, is an inexhaustible generator of exactly the same antibody, over and over and over.

Drugs Based on Monoclonal Antibodies

Adalimumab

Bevacizumab

Tocilizumab

  • Monoclonal antibodies also form the basis for many blockbuster drugs. For instance, the drug adalimumab (brand name Humira) , is a monoclonal antibody that treats rheumatoid arthritis by inhibiting an inflammatory protein known as a cytokine. Another, called bevacizumab (Avastin) , targets a molecule that fuels blood vessel growth; by blocking this molecule, bevacizumab can slow the growth of lung, colon, kidney and some brain cancers.
  • Tocilizumab (TCZ) (Actemra) , is a recombinant humanized anti-interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) monoclonal antibody which has a main use in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. First approved in 2005 as an orphan drug in Japan for the treatment of Castleman՚s disease, a rare lymphoproliferative disease involving expansion of plasma cell numbers

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