Anumana Terminology for Competitive Exams

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Watch Video Lecture on YouTube: Anumana (Inference) Terminology -Paksha, Linga, Sadhya, Hetu, Vyapti, Pakshadharmata, Paramsa

Anumana (Inference) Terminology -Paksha, Linga, Sadhya, Hetu, Vyapti, Pakshadharmata, Paramsa

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The Table of Terms of Anumana Terminology
The table of terms of Anumana terminology




Minor Term (Mountain)

Characteristic – linga (smoke on Paksha)

Middle Term (Smoke)

vyapya (smoke)

factum probans


Major Term (Fire)


factum probandum

  • Inferential cognition (anumiti) is a proposition that follows from the first two propositions and so corresponds to the conclusion of the syllogism

  • Vyapti expresses the relation of invariable concomitance of hetu (middle term) with the sadhya (major term).

  • The middle term (smoke) when appearing on Paksha is called linga (sign) while in vyapti it is called hetu (reason). Complete notes and preparation module at

    • Sadhya

    • Paksha - Sapaksha: The place where the sadhya definitely is exists is sapaksha (kitchen) & Vipaksha: The place where the sadhya is definitely absent is vipaksha (lake)

    • Hetu

    • Linga

    • Drstanta (Example)

  • Pakshadharmata (Special Feature of the Subject) - judgment of such a perception.

    • E.g., existence of smoke on mountain. Pakshadharmata of the paksha is essential for proving sadhya (fire) on the paksha

  • Paramsa: The process of inference relates the sadhya or major term to the paksha or minor term.

    • This is done through the relation of the hetu to both the paksha (by pakshadharmata) and the sadhya (by vyapti).

    • Subsumptive reflection is the knowledge of reason (hetu) existing on the paksha together with the knowledge of invariable concomitance (vyapti) between hetu and sadhya.













# Vyapti

#Hetu #Sadhya

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