# Categorical Propositions 4 Standard Form a, E, I, O YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Class is collection of objects that have some characteristics in common.

Relation between classes is what is categorical propositions – affirming or denying whether one class is part of another class in whole or part

## Universal Affirmative Propositions

**All S is P**

**A Propositions**

Whole of one class is included in another class

By John Venn - 2 interlocking circles to stand for 2 classes – used for validity of deductive arguments

Deductive arguments can be only valid or invalid.

All athletes are females

## Universal Negative Propositions

**No S is P**

**E Propositions**

No athletes are females

Denies relation of inclusion between 2 terms and denies it universally

Mutual exclusion

## Particular Affirmative Propositions

**Some S is P**

**I Propositions**

Some athletes are females

Some to mean at least one – affirms partially

## Particular Negative Propositions

**Some S is not P**

**O Propositions**

Some athletes are not females.

X is placed in region of S outside P

A, E, I & O are building blocks of deductive arguments

This was Aristotle՚s permanent contribution to knowledge and on it is erected classes of objects, relations of objects and sophisticated system for analysis of deductive argument

Proposition | Letter | Quantity | Quality | Distributes |

All S is P | A | Universal | Affirmative | S only |

No S is P | E | Universal | Negative | S & P |

Some S is P | I | Particular | Affirmative | Neither |

Some S is not P | O | Particular | Negative | P Only |

A, E, I & O are building blocks of deductive arguments

This was Aristotle՚s permanent contribution to knowledge and on it is erected classes of objects, relations of objects and sophisticated system for analysis of deductive argument

Distribution – an attribute that described relation between categorical proposition and each one of its terms indicate whether or not proposition makes a statement about every member of the class represented by a given term

✍ Manishika