Modern Western Philosophy Kant Classification of Judgements YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Modern Western Philosophy Kant Classification of Judgements

According to Kant, there are two kinds of judgements; analytic and synthetic.

Analytic and Synthetic
Analytic judgmentsSynthetic judgments
Their predicates are wholly contained in their subjects.

For example,

All bachelors are unmarried

Their predicates are distinct from their subjects.

Add new information about the subject. For example, all bodies are heavy

  • According to him, a proposition is said to be analytic when its predicate is already contained in the connotation of the subject.
    • For example; all bodies are extended in nature.
  • A synthetic proposition is one in which the predicate does not belong to the subject either as its parts or whole.
    • For example, material bodies are heavy.
  • He says, a proposition is said to be a prior when it is independent of any experience whatsoever.
  • 2 criteria:
    • Necessity and
    • Universality
  • According to him, A posteriori propositions are those which are possible through experience. A priori propositions are those which stem from pure-reason or pure-understanding.
  • Knowledge is synthetic a-priori judgements
  • For example; maths and physics.

Copernican Revolution

  • Copernicus, instead of assuming that the earth is the centre, he assumed that sun is the centre of the universe.
  • A similar reversal in the ordinary standpoint concerning the status of objects would make philosophy progressive, according to Kant.
  • He says, β€œreason must approach nature not as a pupil but as a judge.”


  • Criticism raised on the use of the term- Copernicus revolution.
  • Kant has really tried to re-establish a Ptolemaic way of thinking.


Knowledge is synthetic a-priori judgment, best seen in ________ according to Kant

a. Physics and Maths

b. Maths and Astronomy

c. Physics and Astronomy

d. All of these

Answer: A

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