Modern Western Philosophy Kant-Faculty of Understanding & Transcendental Deduction Philosophy YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Modern Western Philosophy Kant- Faculty of Understanding & Transcendental Deduction Philosophy

Title: Modern Western Philosophy Kant- Faculty of Understanding & Transcendental Deduction

Faculty of Understanding

  • Cause and effect principle is a natural principle while we think about objects.
  • In mind, there are some universal necessary characteristics of experience which are found in all mental experience.
  • Kant calls them categories.
  • There are 12 important categories divided into 4 classes of three
    • Quantity - Unity, Plurality, Totality
    • Quality - Reality, Negation and Limitation
    • Relation - Inherence and subsistence, cause and effect, reciprocity
    • Modality - Possibility, Existence and Necessity
  • In the absence of these categories of knowledge, no thinking about any object is possible.

Transcendental Deduction

  • Transcendental Deduction means that there are a priori categories of the understanding which determine the objectivity of the empirical statements and that by means alone such statements can ever be obtained.
  • According to Kant, it is expressed in threefold synthesis, namely
    • The synthesis of apprehension in intuition
    • The synthesis of reproduction in imagination
    • The synthesis of recognition in a concept

The Synthesis of Apprehension in Intuition

  • Ultimately any perception, whether of the outer objects or of inner process is given in time.
  • The multiplicity of parts must be run through and grasped together in one whole.
  • This is known as β€œthe synthesis of apprehension in intuition.”

The Synthesis of Reproduction in Imagination

  • No object can ever be correctly perceived as one whole thing.
  • So, according to Kant, of this condition is not granted then even the most elementary perceptions of the objects in space and time would not be possible.

The Synthesis of Recognition in a Concept

The consciousness which apprehends the parts which later reproduces the various images of its past and which finally recognises them as one and the same parts belonging to one related whole must be the one all through.

Question

According to Kant, Inherence and subsistence, cause and effect, reciprocity come under?

A. Quality

B. Quantity

C. Relation

D. Modality

Ans: C

There are 12 important categories divided into 4 classes of three

  • Quantity - Unity, Plurality, Totality
  • Quality - Reality, Negation and Limitation
  • Relation - Inherence and subsistence, cause and effect, reciprocity
  • Modality - Possibility, Existence and Necessity

In the absence of these categories of knowledge, no thinking about any object is possible.

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