Modern Western Philosophy Leibniz-Concept of Freedom and Necessity & Proofs for Existence of God Philosophy YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Modern Western Philosophy Leibniz- Concept of Freedom and Necessity & Proofs for Existence of God Philosophy

Title: Leibniz- Concept of Freedom and Necessity & Proofs for Existence of God

  • But the free action can՚t be without determinism.
  • A purely undetermined actions means an abrupt action. But this will break the law of continuity.
  • So, every action is determined by the past antecedents.
  • The more we act from our clear ideas or district perceptions, the freer we are.
  • This freedom consists in self-determinism.
  • Hence, freedom consists neither in necessity nor in strict spontaneity but in the spontaneous unfolding of the actions guided by the clear perceptions.
  • Thus, God is the freest being because he can do whatever he pleases.

Proofs for the Existence of God

  • Ontological
  • Eternal Truth
  • Cosmological
  • Harmony

Ontological Proof

  • Every monad has two aspects, actual and possible, activity and passivity.
  • In the hierarchal series, God is the most developed monad, the actus Purus.
  • So, the proof runs as, if God is possible then he must exist, for his existence is a necessary consequence of his possibility.
  • If God does not exist then he would not be possible, nor would anything outside of him be possible.

Cosmological Proof

  • Every particular thing is contingent for we can always think of its non-existence.
  • But every contingent truth is based on sufficient reason.
  • Hence, the universe as a whole, being contingent must have a sufficient reason outside the universe.
  • This sufficient reason is God.

Proof Based on Eternal Truth

  • There are certain propositions which are always true like, bachelors are unmarried men.
  • But a reason for what exists must itself exist.
  • Therefore, the eternal truths must exist and they can exist as thoughts in the mind of the God

Proof Based on Harmony

  • Harmony among monads supposes that there is a being who has regulated and introduced the harmony from outside.
  • And that being is God.
  • Leibniz emphasises on the conscious devotion and participation of simple mind in the divine one.


Which among the following proofs are given by Leibniz for the existence of God?

a. Ontological & Cosmological

b. Eternal truth & Teleological

c. Eternal truth & Harmony

d. Both a and c

Answer: d

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