Sudhadvaita Concept of Avikrta-Parinamavada and Pushtimarga

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  • Acharya Vallabha is the founder of the Shudadvaita school of Vedanta.
  • His philosophy is also known as Shudadvaita or Pure - Non dualism undefiled by Maya.
  • It is also known as Rudrasampradhaya.
  • It is also known as Pushtimarga. Pushti means the grace of God, according to him, grace of god via devotion leads to one՚s liberation.
  • He has written a commentary on the Brahmasutra called the Anubhashya and has also written a commentary on Bhagavad Gita called the Subodhini.

The Nature of Brahman, Soul and Matter

  • According to Vallabha, God or brahman is an independent reality and it is identified with Sri Krishna.
  • His essence is Sat, Cit, Ananda (Saguna Brahman)
  • Souls and matter are Brahman՚s real manifestations or real parts.
  • Maya or avidya are his power according to which he manifests himself into matter or soul, revealing his tripartite nature of Sat, Cit and Ananda (existence, knowledge, and bliss) in different proportions.
  • This manifestation via avidya or Maya is not unreal, neither an error nor an illusion.
  • It is real manifestation.

Avikrta-Parinamavada

  • According to Vallabha, the universe is not a vivarta. He says the universe is a real manifestation and not an unreal appearance.
  • At the same time, it is also not a Parinama, which means the universe՚s manifestation does not bring out any change or transformation in Brahman.
  • The universe is a natural emanation from Brahman which does not cause any notion of change in him, this is therefore, called Avikrta-Parinamavada.
  • According to Vallabha, the cause and effect, the substance and its attributes are identical in nature. Therefore, the relation between cause and effect, the substance and attributes are of tadatmya or identity.
  • So, Brahman is both the material cause or the inherent cause and the efficient cause.
Avikrta-Parinamavada

Pushtimarga

  • According to Vallabha, bhakti is defined as a firm and all surpassing affection for God with a full sense of his greatness.
  • According to him, it is the only means of liberation.
  • Bhakti is affection, it is adulation towards God or Brahman.
  • Pushti or grace of God is the only means of liberation which is earned when the heart is pure and when one shows pure affection towards Brahman.

Questions

1. According to Acharya Vallabha, reality is identifiable with

A. God

B. Krishna

C. Vishnu

D. Shiva

Answer: B

Explanation: According to Vallabha, God or brahman is an independent reality and it is identified with Sri Krishna.

2. Match the following

Match the Following
Set ISet II
1. Anubhashyaa. Commentary on Brahmasutra
2. Subodhinib. Commentary on Bhagavad Gita
3. Pushtimargac. Tripartite nature of Brahman
4. Sat, Cit, Anandad. Grace of God leads to Liberation

A. a b d c

B. b a d c

C. a b c d

D. b a c d

Answer: A

Explanation:

  • Anubhashya - Commentary on Brahmasutra
  • Subodhini - Commentary on Bhagavad Gita
  • Pushtimarga- Grace of God leads to Liberation
  • Sat, Cit, Ananda - Tripartite nature of Brahman

3. According to Vallabha, the following statement is incorrect

A. Tadatmya means difference or non-identity

B. Brahman is the material and also the efficient cause

C. Universe comes out of Brahman without brining any change in Brahman

D. Bhakti means completely surrounding oneself to the supreme being

Answer: A

Explanation:

  • Brahman is the material and also the efficient cause
  • Universe comes out of Brahman without brining any change in Brahman
  • Bhakti means completely surrounding oneself to the supreme being
  • Tadatmya means identity or non-difference.

4. Choose the correct statement according to the philosophy of Acharya Vallabha

A. Shudadvaita means Pure - Non dualism undefiled by Maya.

B. Maya is the power of Brahman according to Shudadvaita

C. Vallabh՚s view is neither Vivartavada nor Parinamavada

D. Vallabha accepts the concept of Avikrta-Parinamavada for creation

Choose the Correct Option:

A. Only a and b

B. Only c and d

C. a, c, and d are correct

D. All of the above

Answer: D

Explanation: The correct statements according to the philosophy of Acharya Vallabha are:

  • Shudadvaita means Pure - Non dualism undefiled by Maya.
  • Maya is the power of Brahman according to Shudadvaita
  • Vallabh՚s view is neither Vivartavada nor Parinamavada
  • Vallabha accepts the concept of Avikrta-Parinamavada for creation

5. Pushtimarga means

A. Liberation is possible via devotion

B. Devotion is complete surrender of oneself to Krishna

C. Grace of God is earned via bhakti is the means to liberation

D. Grace of Krishna is only possible via adulating him and realizing his greatness.

Answer: C

Explanation: Pushti means the grace of God, according to him, grace of god via devotion or bhakti leads to one՚s liberation. Here, bhakti means a firm and all surpassing affection for God with a full sense of his greatness.

#Shudadvaita

#Vallabha

#Creation

#Brahman

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