# Vyapti, Sama Vyapti & Asama Vyapti YouTube Lecture Handouts

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## Vyapti

### Sama Vyapti & Asama Vyapti

• Vyapti literally means the “state of pervasion” or “permeation.” It does implies a correlation between 02 facts, of which 01 is Pervaded (Vyapya) & pervades (Vyapaka) . (A fact is said to pervade another when it always accompanies that other. On the other hand, a fact is said to be pervaded by another when the other always accompanies it)
• The presence of the middle term in the minor term is called Paksadharmata and the invariable association of the middle term with the major term is called Vyapti. Knowledge of Paksadharmata as qualified by Vyapti is called Parāmarsa. In addition, Anumana is defined as knowledge arising through Parāmarsa i.e.. the knowledge of the presence of the major in the minor through the middle, which resides in the minor and is invariably associated with the major.
• Paramsa: The process of inference relates the sadhya or major term to the paksha or minor term. This is done through the relation of the hetu to both the paksha (by pakshadharmata) and the sadhya (by Vyapti) . Subsumptive reflection is the knowledge of reason (hetu) existing on the paksha together with the knowledge of invariable concomitance (vyapti) between hetu and sadhya.

### Smoke & Fire

The middle term (smoke) when appearing on paksha is called linga (sign) while in Vyapti it is called hetu (reason) .

Sama Vyapti or Equipollent Concomitance

• Sama Vyapti: A Vyapti between terms of equal extension is called SAMAVYĀPTI or Equipollent concomitance. There is a Sama Vyapti between ′ cause and effect ′ , ′ Substance and attribute ′ . For example, whatever is produced is non-eternal and whatever is non-eternal is produced.
• A Sama Vyapti, on the other hand, is a universal proposition, which distributes both the subject and the predicate. (In the terminology of western logic, by following Hamilton, such propositions may be called U-proposition.)
• AsamaVyāpti or VisamaVyāpti or Non-Equipollent Concomitance
• AsamaVyāpti or VisamaVyāpti: A Vyapti between terms of unequal extension is called AsamaVyāpti or Non-Equipollent Conomitance. It is a relation of nonequipollent concomitance between two terms. For example, all Smokey objects are fiery. However, while all Smokey objects are fiery, not all fiery objects are Smokey. For example, the red-hot iron ball. Similarly, all men are mortal, but not all mortals are men, For example, birds and beasts.
• AsamaVyāpti or VisamaVyāpti is a universal proposition, of which only the subject is distributed.

### Vyapti - Different Philosophical Systems

• The Carvaka recognizes perception as the only source of knowledge. No generalization from observed particular fact is possible. It is limited to present facts and cannot tell us anything about the past, distance, and future.
• The Buddhists say that the Vyapti relationship may be based on two principles. One is the principle of causality (Tadātma) and another is the principle of essential identity (Tadutpatti) . The Buddhist logicians give a method which is called Panchakarani, by means of which one can determine whether there is a causal relationship or not. Panchakarani consists of the following five steps:
• Neither the cause nor the effect is perceived.
• The cause is perceived.
• Immediately the effect is perceived.
• The cause disappears.
• Immediately the effect disappears.
• Hence, Vyapti according to Buddhists is not the result of generalization.
• Advaita Vedanta holds that Vyapti is established by un-contradicted experience of agreement in presence between two things
• Nyaya holds that Vyapti is established by un-contradicted experience of agreement in presence between two things and not by any a-priori principle like causality or identity in essence. Naiyayikas (the Nyaya scholars) accepted four valid means (Pramana) of obtaining valid knowledge (Pramana) - perception (Pratyaksa) , inference (Anumana) , comparison (Upamana) , and word/testimony of reliable sources (Sabda) .
• Like Vedantins according to Naiyayikas, also Vyapti is established based on induction per simple enumeration. However, unlike Vedantins, they supplement un-contradicted experience by few more steps. All the steps involved in the Nyaya method of establishing Vyapti are the following:
• Anyaya
• Vyatireka
• Vyabhicharagraha