Election Terminology India: Elections 2019 for Competitive Exams (2021)

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Study voting and voting patterns

Tactical Voters

People vote not for the party they really support, but for another party in order to keep out a more disliked rival.

Swing Voters

Transfer of votes from one party to another.


Changing physical boundaries of voting district

Exit Polls

Polls taken immediately after people exit form voting

Post Poll Survey

Based on survey after voting

Silent Majority

Mass of people whose opinion are not loud and public but when combined have great power


Supporter of a “party, cause, or person” ; biased towards an idea, belief.


Cooperative efforts of two political parties


Electronically transmitted Postal Ballot System (ETPBS)

Voters receive the downloadable postal ballot through two-layer secure electronic medium - secured ‘One Time Password (OTP) ’ for downloading the encrypted files sent through mobile or e-mail and the system generated unique “Personal Identification Number” (PIN) for decrypting and printing each and every single postal ballot to the individual service voter/authorized person.

Pilot project – 2016 in Puducherry

Hung Parliament

If no party has overall majority, parliament is considered as hung

Safe Seat

Seat where there is big lead for the party

Proxy Vote

People unable to get to a polling station are allowed to appoint someone to vote on their behalf if they apply in advance

Postal Vote

People unable to get to a polling station are allowed to vote by post (Application must be in advance)


None of the above option on electronic voting machines (EVMs) allows voters to exercise their right to disapprove of all the candidates contesting the elections

After SC directive in 2013


Huge majority by one party


Election held between general elections, usually because sitting member of Parliament has died or resigned

EVM (Electronic Voting Machine)

Voting using electronic means to either aid or take care of the chores of casting and counting votes


Series of planned actions including advertising, organising rallies and meetings, aimed at gathering and building voter support.


To canvass is to ask voters to vote for you. (Door to Door)

Classified Service Voters

Registered voter, part of the armed forces or any other force under the Army Act, who chooses to vote using a proxy.

Electoral Roll

It is a list of all registered voters in an assembly or parliamentary constituency. The electoral rolls are usually available at Electoral Registration Offices.

Elector՚s Photo Identity Card (EPIC)

It is also called Voter ID card. All voters are expected to carry their EPIC to the polling booth on election day as proof of registration.

Voter-Verified Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT)

System which enables electronic voting machines to record each vote cast by generating the EVM slip

Used in all 543 Lok Sabha constituencies in 2019 Indian general election.

Developed by: