European Union: Origin of European Union and Organizational Structure

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  • European Union is a best example of Regional Organisation set up for Economic, Security and Political Cooperation
  • European Union came into existence in 1993 through Maastricht Treaty
  • Lisbon Treaty in 2009 was signed to make European Union more Efficient and Effective

Origin of European Union

  • JEAN MONNET and ROBERT SCHUMAN planned the formation of the organisation
  • Schuman Plan created European Coal And Steel Community
  • Members were France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg
  • Its purpose was to create one regulatory authority for Coal and Steel Industries within these six countries
  • In 1952, The members of the ECSC tried to form European Defense Community (EDC) to create a Unified Military in Europe
  • In 1953, The ECSC countries attempted to form a European Political Community

In 1957, Treaty Of Rome Created two organizations:

  • The European Atomic Community (EURATOM)
  • The European Economic Community (EEC)

EEC later came to be known as European Union (EU) and is considered as predecessor of today՚s European Union because of the concept of Economic Integration on Regional Basis

  • In 1960 , Common Agricultural Policy was created by EEC
  • Britain, Ireland, Denmark joined EEC in 1973
  • Greece Joined the EEC in 1981
  • Portugal and Spain joined EEC in 1986
  • The Treaty of Rome was amended in 1986 and made European Parliament more representative
  • In 1991, Maastricht Treaty was signed by 12 member states of EEC and changed the name EEC to EU
  • In 1993, European Union came into existence
  • In 1995, Schengen Treaty was signed to facilitate borderless travel

Maastricht Treaty set three major goals:

  • Introduced Common Currency for Member States (EURO was introduced in 1999 as common currency)
  • Creation of European Police Agency (EPA)
  • Achieve political and military unity of Europe

Organizational Structure

  • The European Parliament
  • The European Council
  • The Council of European Union
  • The European Union Commission
  • The Court of Justice of the European union
  • The European Central Bank
  • The Court of Auditors

Reforms Made by Lisbon Treaty

  • A more democratic and transparent Europe
  • A more Efficient Europe
  • A Europe of Rights and Values, Freedom, Solidarity and Security
  • Europe as an actor on the global stage


  • The United Kingdom has left the European Union
  • In 2016 , People decided that UK should leave EU in a Referendum
  • In 2017 , UK Formally began the BREXIT by Article 50 of Lisbon Treaty

On 31st January 2020 , UK leaves the European Union with 11 months transition period in Which

  • UK will vacate its position from European Union Institutions
  • UK will continue to obey the rules of European Union

Consequences of Brexit on European Union

Consequences of Brexit on European Union

Opportunities for India

  • Free Trade Agreement with UK and EU
  • Demand for Indian Labour
  • Service Sector
  • Easy Market Access
  • Cheaper Imports