International Relations: Concepts: Non-State Actors and Nation-State System

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Non-State Actors

  • The rapid increase in the number of nation-state system was accompanied by the emergence of several powerful non state actors in international relations.

  • They affect the state –centric international system.

  • Also affected the operation of sovereignty and nationalism in the international environment.

What Are Non – State Actors?

  • Referred to variously as transnational actors /organisations, inter-governmental actors, non-governmental actors or multinational actors.

  • They are not formally associating of government of the states.

  • Their interactions are referred to as transnational interactions.

  • The term ‘transnational interactions’ covers ‘the movement of tangible and intangible items across the state boundaries when at least one actor is not an agent of a government or an inter-governmental organisation’.

IGOs, INGOs, NGOs and TNOs

  • IGOs – Intergovernmental organisation, created by three or more government or state, permanent in nature for serving a mutual purpose.

  • INGOs / NGOs – NGOs(that has not been created by means of inter-governmental agreements) are sometimes called as INGOs , are the organisations that are created by private citizens or group drawn from three or more countries.

  • ISO – An interstate organisation is one in which is organized by three or more states, but which may accept members which are non-sovereign states but have governments. For example – International Telecommunication Union, Universal postal Union.

Difference between IGOs and NGOs

  • IGOs- no non-governmental representation

  • NGOs – Totally free from governmental representations, voluntarily organized by people of various states for a common cause or with shared objectives.

  • NGOs are dependent on governments permission to function in a state.

  • Examples of NGOs – Amnesty International or other human rights group, social welfare organisations working for environment, youth organisations etc.

  • United Nations Environment Programme, UN Disaster Relief Organisation, UN Fund for Population Activities are examples of INGOs.

Non-State Actors and Nation-State System

  • The emergence of non-state actors has attacked the state-centric international system.

  • Have compelled a change in concepts of nationalism and sovereignty.

  • The policies , decisions of nation state bears influence of non –state actors.

  • They have emerged as powerful non-political , commercial , economic, cultural, environmentalists, and trading actors in the international environment.

  • They have contributed towards the growth of internationalism, dilution nationalism in favor of universalism, and the emergence of several strong and peaceful, developmental and ecological movements.

MCQs

1. International Telecommunication Union, Universal postal Union are examples of-

  1. IGO

  2. ISO

  3. NGO

  4. MNC

Ans. B. ISO

Explanation: An interstate organisation is one in which is organized by three or more states, but which may accept members which are non-sovereign states but have governments.

2. Amnesty International is an ______?

  1. NGO

  2. IGO

  3. ISO

  4. TNC

Ans. A. NGO

Explanation: NGOs are the organisations that are created by private citizens or group drawn from three or more countries. Amnesty International was founded in London in 1961, following the publication of the article “The Forgotten Prisoners” in The Observer on 28 May 1961, by the lawyers Peter Berenson and Philip James

3. Greenpeace is an example of ____?

  1. IGO

  2. MNC

  3. TNC

  4. NGO

Ans. D. NGO

Explanation: Greenpeace is an international environmental NGO (nongovernmental organization) which uses a strategy of what it calls nonviolent “creative confrontation” to highlight environmental misdeeds by corporations, industries, and governments.

4. United Nations Falls under which category of organisation?

  1. IGO

  2. NGO

  3. INGO

  4. MNC

Ans. A. IGO

Explanation: IGOs are typically organized by their membership and by their purpose. For example, the UN is called a global organization because all countries are allowed membership. Founded in 1945, the United Nations is the single largest IGO in the world. The UN Charter, the treaty establishing the UN, lists its main purposes as maintaining international peace and security, developing relations among nations, working to solve international issues, promoting human rights, and being a central place for harmonizing the actions of nations.

5. Human Rights Watch is an __?

  1. INGO

  2. IGO

  3. ISO

  4. NONE

Ans. A. INGO

Explanation: Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization, headquartered in New York City, that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. Human Rights Watch was co-founded by Robert L. Bernstein and Aryeh Neier as a private American NGO in 1978, under the name Helsinki Watch.

#NGOS#INGOS#IGOS#Human Rights Watch#Greenpeace#Amnesty International#United Nations

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