NCERT Class 10 Political Science Chapter 7: Outcomes of Democracy YouTube Lecture Handouts

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  • Quality of government

  • Economic well-being

  • Inequality, social differences and conflict

  • Freedom and dignity

Why democracy is better?

  • Promotes equality among citizens

  • Enhances the dignity of the individual

  • Improves the quality of decision making

  • Provides a method to resolve conflicts

  • Allows room to correct mistakes

Democracy is good in principle but not so in practice. Democracies have been different in social situations and economic achievements

Democratic government hold elections, formal constitutions, have parties and guarantee rights of citizens

If expectations are not met we blame democracy or doubt it

Democracy is only a form of government and can only create conditions for achieving something – citizens must take advantage of those to achieve the goals

Accountable, Responsive & Legitimate Government

People have right to choose rulers and control them

People take part in decision making

ART of Governance (Accountability, Responsibility & Transparency)

Non-democratic rulers don’t have to worry about majorities and public opinions for decision making

Democracy is based on deliberation and negotiations. It may take more time to follow procedure before coming to decision but would be more acceptable and effective

Democracy ensures decision takes place through norms and procedures – person has the right and means to examine (for example, Right to Information Act)

  • Regular, free and fair elections

  • Open public debate on major policies and legislations

  • Citizens’ right to information about the government and its functioning

Democracy attentive to needs and demands of people is free of corruption – but democracy frustrates need of people and ignore demand of majority (evils of corruption)

Democratic government is people’s own government & hence legitimate – people wish to be ruled by representatives elected by them

Economic Growth

  • From 1950 to 2000 – dictatorship have shown higher rate of economic growth as compared to democracy but this cannot be the reason to reject democracy

  • Average dictatorial regimes have had a slightly better record of economic growth

  • Democracy like S. Africa & Brazil – top 20% people take away 60% national income and leave 3% for bottom 20% people (Denmark and Hungary perform much better)

  • Idea is to reduce economic disparities

  • Democracies are based on political equality. All individuals have equal weight in electing representatives

  • Those in bottom of society have declining income & find it hard to meet even the basic needs

  • Poor constitutes a large proportion and & no party would like to lose their votes but yet nothing works and situation worsens

  • Bangladesh has more than 50% people BPL

Accommodate Social Divisions

  • Democracies develop procedure to conduct competition and reduce tensions

  • Aims to accommodate various groups, respect others and evolve to negotiate the differences

  • Majority must work with minority in views

  • Check that rule of majority does not become rule of majority community in terms of religion, race or linguistic group (As in Sri Lanka)

  • Democracy remains democracy only as long as every citizen has a chance of being in majority at some point of time. If someone is barred, democracy ceases to be accommodative for that person.

Dignity & Freedom of Citizens

  • Superior to promote dignity and freedom of individual

  • Every individual wants to receive respect from fellow

  • Passion of respect and freedom are basis for democracy

  • Take care of dignity of women & treat them equally – easier to wage struggle against what is now unacceptable legally and morally

  • Democracy has strengthened claim of disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunity

  • Examination of democracy is never over – it passes one test and is ready for another test. Some get benefit and ask for more benefit while those who don’t get benefit, start to complaint.

  • People have ability to expect and look critically to power holders

  • Democracy transforms people from status of subject to that of the citizen

  • People believe that vote makes a difference to way government is run and their own self-interest.

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