NCERT Class 7 Political Science Chapter 4: Growing Up as Boys & Girls YouTube Lecture Handouts

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  • Gender: Biological distinction b/w male & female

  • Explains inequalities and power relations

  • Differences in socialization and roles to play

  • Roles women play & work they do are usually valued less than the roles men play and the work they do

  • Identity: Sense of self-awareness of who one is

Case Studies

Samoa (1920s)

  • Island in Pacific Ocean

  • Children didn’t go to school in 1920s

  • Fishing was important activity

  • Most works were learnt at home

  • Boys joined for outdoor activity like fishing and planting coconut

  • Girls looked after younger ones

  • Girls as teenagers went on fishing expeditions independently, weave baskets, cook at home

MP (1960s)

  • Separate schools for boys and girls

  • Total seclusion and safety from outside world – central courtyard for girls

  • Open playground for boys

  • Girls: Straight to home – fear of being teased or attacked

Where this Starts?

  • At an early age

  • With distinctions in roles to play

  • Boys given cars & girls given dolls

  • Now with colors, Boys associated with blue and girls with pink

Differences occur in:

  • Dressing

  • Talking

  • Games

  • Subjects to choose

  • Career to pick

Same status is not enjoyed

Valuing Housework

  • Housework

  • Caregiving

  • Looking after family

  • Looking after children, elderly and sick

  • This comes naturally and is never paid

  • Society devalues this work (no proper recognition is given)

Domestic Workers

  • Mainly women

  • Sweeping and cleaning

  • Washing clothes and dishes

  • Cooking

  • Looking after young children or elderly

  • Low wages

  • Hard Work

  • Heavy physical work

  • Fetch water

  • Carry heavy loads of firewood

  • Stoves are strenuous and physically demanding

  • Double burden with working women

Image of Ratio of Domestic Workers

Image of Ratio of Domestic Workers

Image of Ratio of Domestic Workers

Work & Equality

  • Equality given in our constitution

  • No discrimination should exist

  • Positive steps to remedy the situation

  • Burden of child-care and housework falls on women and girls

  • Anganwadis established

  • Mandatory for organizations that have more than 30 women employees to provide crèche facilities

  • Making possible for more girls to attend schools

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