NCERT Class 7 Political Science Chapter 9: A Shirt in the Market Youtube Lecture Handouts

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Case Study of Farmer in Andhra Pradesh – Growing Cotton

  • Cotton Bolls carry cotton

  • Bolls don’t burst all at once, it takes several days to harvest

  • Requires input like pesticides & fertilizers

  • Borrow money for farm expenses

  • Repayment of loans

Image of six Trend of Cotton

Image of Six Trend of Cotton

Image of six Trend of Cotton

  • Ginning mill: A factory where seeds are removed from cotton bolls. The cotton is pressed into bales to be sent for spinning into thread.

  • Trader is a powerful man - Farmers depend on him for loans & to meet other exigencies such as illnesses, children’s school fees

  • In case of no farm income farmers borrow money for survival

Cloth Market – Erode

  • Erode’s bi-weekly cloth market in Tamil Nadu is one of the largest cloth markets in the world.

  • Cloth by weavers is brought for sale

  • Cloth merchants buy the cloth

  • Merchants supply it to garment manufacturer or exporter

  • Weavers take the yarn from traders and bring back finished product from power looms

Benefit for Weavers:

  1. Weavers don’t spend money to buy yarn

  2. Weavers don’t have to bother about selling the product

  3. They know what to make & how much to weave

Weavers’ Dependency on Merchants:

  1. Merchants get more power

  2. They give the order for cloth and pay low prices

  3. Weavers don’t know for whom they are making the cloth

  4. Weavers don’t know the price at which the trader would sell the cloth

  5. Merchants sell it to garment factories & market is in favor of merchants

  6. Weavers invest there saving or borrow money to buy looms (cost of 1 loom is around Rs.20,000) – they work 12 hours a day and get Rs. 3500 per month

Putting Out System

  • Merchant supplies the raw material and receives the finished product

  • Prevalent in India

Weaver Cooperatives

  • Weaver’s cooperatives reduce dependence on the merchant and to earn a higher income for the weavers.

  • Weavers form group & procure yarn form yarn dealers & distribute among weavers – also do marketing, reduces role of merchants

  • Tamil Nadu government runs Free School Uniform program. Government procures the cloth for this program from the powerloom weaver’s cooperatives. Government buys cloth from the handloom weaver’s cooperatives and sells it through stores known as Co-optex

  • Garment Factory

  • Use cloth for shirt making

  • US & Europe businesspersons who run the stores – demand lowest price from suppliers

  • Quality of production & delivery time is set up

  • Exporter tries best to meet the condition

  • Exporting factories – cut cost & so pay less wages to workers, maximize profit & supply garment at cheap price

  • Highest are highest paid with workers with Rs 3,000 per month.

  • Women are employed as helpers for thread cutting, buttoning, ironing and packaging

Price of Shirt in USA

Image of Price of Shirt In USA

Image of Price of Shirt in USA

Image of Price of Shirt In USA

  • Garment exporter sold at Rs. 200/shirt

  • Cloth & raw material cost him Rs. 70/shirt

  • Workers wage cost him Rs. 15/shirt

  • Cost of running office cost him Rs.15/shirt

  • Buying & Selling occurs at many points – till it reaches supermarket

  • Foreign businessperson makes huge profits

  • Garment export factory gets enough to meet its daily needs

  • The weaver doesn’t get a fair price for the product

  • Not everyone gains equally in market

  • Rich & powerful gets the maximum earning – who have money, shops and land holdings

  • Poor are exploited because of dependence

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