NCERT Class 8 Political Science Chapter 4: Understanding Laws YouTube Lecture Handouts

Download PDF of This Page (Size: 1.3M)

Get video tutorial on: https://www.youtube.com/c/Examrace

Watch video lecture on YouTube: NCERT Class 8 Political Science Chapter 4: Understanding Laws NCERT Class 8 Political Science Chapter 4: Understanding Laws
Loading Video

Laws on age of marriage, voting rights, buying and selling property

Image of Laws on age of marriage, voting rights, buying and selling property

Laws on Age of Marriage, Voting Rights, Buying and Selling Property

Image of Laws on age of marriage, voting rights, buying and selling property

Do Laws Apply to All?

  • Hiding a criminal case (violation of law - punishment)

  • There should be no arbitrary exercise of power in independent India

  • All people are equal before law

  • Law cannot discriminate based on gender, caste, religion

  • No one can be above the law – no govt. official, no wealthy person and not even president

  • Ancient India – Overlapping local laws – punishment varied based on caste (low caste were penalized)

  • Colonial period – scenario changed & British introduced rule of law – colonial laws were arbitrary and Indians played a key role in legal sphere

Example of Arbitrary British Law

Sedition Act of 1870: Any person protesting or criticizing the British government could be arrested without due trial

Image of Example of Arbitrary British Law

Image of Example of Arbitrary British Law

Image of Example of Arbitrary British Law

  • Rowlatt Act, 1919: Allowed the British government to imprison people without due trial - Dr Satyapal and Dr Saifuddin Kitchlew were arrested – To protest it meeting at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar – General Dyer firing

  • Indian nationalist protested and criticized – fought for equality

  • End of 19th century – Indian legal professions in courts & Indian judges were seen

  • After Constitution – new laws are passed and existing ones are revised (new laws on pollution and employment)

  • Hindu Succession Amendment Act 2005: Sons, daughters and their mothers can get an equal share of family property

Image of Types of Law

Image of Types of Law

Image of Types of Law

How New Laws Are Formed?

  • Parliament makes the laws

  • Parliament is sensitive to the problems faced by the people

  • Domestic violence - injury or harm or threat of injury or harm caused by an adult male, usually the husband, against his wife – can be physical or emotional

  • Abuse – social, economic or sexual

  • Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005: Extends ‘domestic’ to include all women who ‘live or have lived together in a shared household’ with the male member who is perpetrating the violence – includes monetary relief to meet expense and medical cost

  • Domestic Violence (Prevention and Protection) Bill drafted in 1999 & introduced in 2002, new bill reintroduced in 2005 and named Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act which came into effect in 2006

Image of Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act

Image of Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act

Image of Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act

From need of law to being passed – voice of citizen is important – conveyed by TV, editorials, newspapers, broadcast and local meetings

Image of UNITING OPINIONS

Image of UNITING OPINIONS

Image of UNITING OPINIONS

Unpopular and Controversial Laws

  • Sometimes law is passed, constitutionally valid and legal but becomes unpopular

  • People criticize it, hold meetings and demonstrations, write about and express their unwillingness about it – if the mass movement gathers there is pressure on Parliament to change it

  • For example, municipal laws on use of space within municipal limits should be illegal for hawking and street vending – open space is good for public but hawkers bring in cheap services to market – people who want to modify or cancel it can move to court

  • Role of citizens – elect representatives, use media, involvement and enthusiasm of people help the Parliament to function properly.

Master policitical science for your exam with our detailed and comprehensive study material