Competitive Exams: Political Science Study Material National Commission for Women

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National Commission for Women

  • The National Commission for Women was set up as a statutory body in January 1992 under the National Commission for Women Act, 1990 to review the Constitutional and Legal safeguards for the women
  • Recommend remedial Legislative measures, facilitate redressal of the grievances and advise the Government on all policy matters affecting the women.
  • The first Commission was constituted on 31st January 1992 with Mrs Jayanti Patnaik as the Chairperson.


The Commission shall consist of:

A Chairperson to be nominated by the Central Government.

Five members-to be nominated by the Central Government from amongst the persons of ability, integrity and standing-and have the experience in various fields, like law or legislation, trade unionism, management of industry potential of women, women՚s voluntary organization, administration, economic development, health, education or social welfare.

A Member Secretary-to be nominated by the Central Government.

The Member Secretary Should be Either

  1. an expert in the field of management, organisation structure or social movement or
  2. an officer who is a member of a Civil Services of the Union or of an All India Service with appropriate experience.

The Act has bestowed the Commission with wide ranging powers and functions. It also vests the Commission with the power of a Civil Court.


The Commission shall perform all or any of the following functions, namely:

  • Investigate and examine all the matters relating to the safeguards provided for the women under the Constitution and other laws
  • Present to the Central Government, annually and at such other times as the Commission may deem fit, reports upon the working of those safeguards
  • Make in such reports/recommendations for the effective implementation of those safeguards for improving the conditions of the women by the Union or any State
  • Review, from time to time, the existing provisions of the Constitution and other laws affecting the women and recommend amendments thereof so as to suggest remedial legislative measures to meet any lacunae, inadequacies or shortcomings in such legislations
  • Take up cases of violation of the provisions of the Constitution and of other laws relating to the women with the appropriate authorities
  • Look into complaints and take suo moto notice of the matters relating to:
    1. deprivation of the women՚s rights
    2. non-implementation of the laws enacted to provide protection to the women and also to achieve the objective of equality and development
    3. non compliance of the policy decisions, guidelines or instructions aimed at mitigating hardships and ensuring welfare and providing relief to the women, and take up the issues arising out of such matters with appropriate authorities
  • Call for special studies or investigations into specific problems or situations arising out of the discrimination and atrocities against the women and identify the constraints so as to recommend strategies for their removal
  • Undertake the promotional and educational research so as to suggest ways of ensuring due representation of the women in all spheres and identify factors responsible for impeding the support services and technologies for reducing drudgery and occupational health hazards and for increasing their productivity
  • Evaluate the progress of the development of women under the Union and any State
  • Inspect or cause to inspect a jail, remand home, women՚s institution or other places of custody where the women are kept as prisoners or otherwise and take up with the concerned authorities for remedial action, if found necessary
  • Fund litigations involving the issues affecting a large body of the women
  • Make periodical reports to the Government on any matter pertaining to the women and in particular various difficulties under which women toil
  • Any other matter which may be referred to it by the Central Government.

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