Competitive Exams: Political Science Study Material: Glossary O

Political Science Glossary: O

Oligarchy

It is a rule of a few persons belonging to the aristocratic background, in their own interests.

Ombudsman

In Sweden, the ombudsman is a high ranking public official responsible for hearing the people's grievances against various Government authorities and the matters of corruption in the Government. Similar public officials have been appointed in other countries to probe the charges of corruption against high-level authorities of the Government.

Officers of the Cabinet Rank by the Statute

Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission. Speaker of the Lok Sabha. Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha.

Open door policy

This is a trade policy adopted by a nation, which is characterized by the trade relations with all countries on equal and easy terms. There is no discriminative trade with any country.

Opinion Poll

Opinion polls are measures of public attitude, on any sort of issue, carried out by professional polling organizations whose main business is usually in market research. In the mass media a typical opinion poll is a measure of the voting intention of the electorate, of how the voters rank politicians and parties, and of what preferences the electorate has among various policy alternatives; these polls are taken with increasing frequency and assume greater importance as an election approaches.

Ordinance

An ordinance is a law promulgated by the head of the State in a situation of urgency when the Legislature cannot frame the law because either it is not in session or it is dissolved. An ordinance has the same effect as a law made by the Legislature. However, it is a temporary measure and has to be approved by the Legislature within a prescribed period, otherwise it ceases to be in operation.

Ostpolitik

This refers to the foreign policy of the West Germany through which it tried to reduce the cold war tensions with the communist countries and took the measures to establish the normal relations with these countries.