Social Movements: Political Science YouTube Lecture Handouts

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  • Organized effort by people to achieve a particular goal.
  • In involves individual and groups when required.
  • It seeks to empower oppress population
  • It is a method to social change
  • It is concerned with change in social structure, dynamics and process
  • It is a voluntary association of people and a type of group action
  • The term was introduced by Lorenz Von Stein in History of the French Social Movement from 1789 to 1850.
  • Western culture is responsible for its unprecedented growth
  • Education and increased mobility of Labour is responsible for social movement
  • It requires sustain collective action with some degree of organization which includes leadership
  • Participants have a shared objective and ideology
  • They seek to bring about social change
  • They requires long term collective actions
  • Its goal must have a collective significance
  • it may be organized or disorganized, peaceful or violent
  • its duration is not certain and has three stages
    • Origin
    • Maturity
    • Culmination

Categories of Social Movements

Identity of Particular Participants

Eg - tribal movement, Harijan Movement, Women Movement, Peasant Movement

Nature of Collectivities

Against whom they are led like AntI Brahmin


  • Based on locality eg Telangana Movement
  • Social movements are also Named after leaders eg Gandhian Movement
Categories of Social Movements

Theories of Social Movements

Relative Deprivation Theory

  • Social movements are organized by deprived class of society
  • Economic, Social or political deprivation
  • Exponents- Merton, Runciman , Marx
  • Social movement as collective action located in economic structure

Collective Behavior/Collective Action Theory

  • Exponents- Robert park and Herbert Blumer
  • They referred social movement to spontaneous social processes

Value Added Theory

  • It is also known as Structural Strain
  • Exponents- Neil Smelser
  • Refers conflict cat cultural level
  • various stages of social movements

Stages of Social Movements

Stages of Social Movements

New Social Movements Theory

  • It is a 1960ีšs phenomenon
  • They are different from old social movements
  • Its social formation is of New social and political relations
  • They are new in terms of orientation, organization and style
  • it includes womenีšs movements, ecology and peace Movement
  • It focuses on change in lifestyle and culture
  • It is an informal and loosely organized network of supporters

Causes of Social Movements

Causes of Social Movements

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