Tribal Movements in India: Political Science YouTube Lecture Handouts

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  • Tribals are ethnic group that possess distinct culture, social structures, values, etc.
  • Their characteristics include
    • Primitive traits
    • Distinct Culture
    • Shyness of Contact
    • Geographical isolation
    • Socio economic backwardness
  • They constitute the lower stratum of Society.
  • They are politically autonomous.
  • Their economic base is through shifting agriculture, fishing, hunting, etc.

Causes of Tribal Movements in India

  • Imposition of Land Revenue Settlement
  • Work of Christian Missionaries
  • The Forest Department in 1864, Government Forest Act (1865) and Indian Forest Act in 1878. (Banning of Shifting Agriculture)
  • Extention of settle Agriculture led outsiders to exploit tribals and reduced them into agricultural labourers.
  • Imposition of taxes and new excise regulation by traders and money lenders.
  • Introduction of Private Property.

Phases of Tribal Movements

K S Singh divided the tribal movement into three phases

  • First Phase (1795 - 1860)
  • Second Phase (1860 - 1920)
  • Third Phase (1920 - 1947)
Phases of Tribal Movements

Major Tribal Uprisings

Kol Rebellion

  • It took place in 1832, the Kols lived in Chotanagpur area with autonomy until British arrived.
  • Britishers impose taxes on land and Kols becomes labourers.
  • In 1831 - 32, Kols Organise themselves and revolt against Britishers and burned their houses.
  • The Rebellion was suppressed by Britishers superior weaponry.

Santhal Uprisings

  • It took place in 1855 against Britishers and zamindari system as the Zamindars claimed Santhals land as their own.
  • The Zamindar exploited Santhals by imposing high rates of interest on loans.
  • In 1854, Bir Singh led first rebellion
  • In 1855, Sidhu and Kanhu led second rebellion.

Mundane Ulgulam

  • It took place 1899 - 1900 in chotanagpur.
  • The Khuntkatti system was replaced by the Zamindar system.
  • Their leader was Birsa Munda who organized people to revolt.
  • He was released in 1897 and launched armed struggle in 1899.
  • The main frontier tribal Uprisings include
    • Khasi uprising 1830՚s
    • Ahem Revolt 1828
    • Singhphos Rebellion 1830 - 1855
    • Naga Movement 1905 - 1935
Mundane Ulgulam
Chuar1766 - 72Raja JagannathExcess Revenue Demand
Ahom1828 - 33Gomadhar KunwarBritish Occupation
Khasi1829 - 32Tirut SinghBritish occupation
Kol1831 - 32Buddha BhagatLand transfer to outsider
Naikda1858Rup SinghFor dharm raj against ban on grazing and timber
Kacha Nagas1882SambhudenBritish intervention
Munda1899Birsa MundaLand system