Social Change in India-Factors of Social Change: Sociology for Competitive Exams (2021)

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Factors of Social Change: Sociology

Social Change In India - Factors of Social Change: Sociology (Population Studies)


  • Introduction
  • Concept
  • Social Change Model
  • Criteria to Understand Social Change
  • Factors of Social Change
    • Physical or Social Environment
    • Demographic Factor
    • Cultural Factor
    • Ideational Factor
    • Economic Factor
    • Political Factor
  • Main Factors (Causes) Affecting Social Change
  • Mcq (Questions and Answers)


  • Social change , the alteration of mechanisms within the social structure, characterized by changes in:
    • Cultural symbols
    • Rules of behavior
    • Social organizations
Group Values


  • Social change occurs when many members of a society adopt new behaviors that have long term and relatively important consequences:
    • Change is one of the most constant feature of American society.
    • It is difficult to predict how or at what rate a society will change.
    • The course of change in society depends on the nature of existing culture.
    • All societies are involved in a process of social change.
Social Change


  • Social change can evolve from:
    • A number of different sources
    • Including contact with other societies (diffusion)
    • Changes in the ecosystem (which can cause the loss of natural resources or widespread disease)
    • Technological change (epitomized by the industrial Revolution
    • Which created a new social group
    • The urban proletariat
    • Population growth and other demographic variables.
    • Social change is also spurred by ideological, economic, and political movements.

Social Change Model

Social Change Model

Types of Social Change

Types of Social Change

Criteria to Understand Social Change

  • Social change – what helps?
  • Relationship of trust with local people: ′ Starting where people are.
  • Change work is indistinguishable from practice work: Service or advocacy? it ′ s both. ′
  • Synergy between campaigns and casework: Policy and campaign priorities largely dictated by issues emerging from client feedback.
  • Strong senior with capacity: The time and space to attend meetings and speak out, in order to influence staff networks, coalitions and policy.
  • Independence: The importance of a degree of independence in funding, in order to speak out about local public sector policy issues.
  • Communication: Being able to articulate their social change role, by thinking about where on the spectrum of social change work they are best placed to focus.

Factors of Social Change

Factors of Social Change

Factors of Social Change

  • Some of the most important Factors of Social Change are as follows:
    • Physical or Social Environment
    • Demographic Factor
    • Cultural Factor
    • Ideational Factor
    • Economic Factor
    • Political Factor
  • Physical or Social Environment:
    • The geographical changes are one of the primary factors of Social Change.
    • The physical or natural forces both works in unifying or disintegrating the form of the society.
    • Our society can get disrupted by natural phenomenon like storms, flood, drought etc.
    • These physical or natural factors can create havoc in the social life on an individual.

Demographic Factor

  • The demographic factor influences the nature of the social change.
  • The population, however much it is, brings social problems.
  • The population of a society rises when the birth-rate exceed the death rate and vice versa.
  • The rising of the population has consequences like poverty, unemployment and other related problems.
  • Low birth rate signifies the decrease in the size of the population.
  • There are critical consequences here as well.
  • The low population signifies, only a handful of potential skilled workers are available in the country/society.

Cultural Factor

  • The cultural factor could be one of the fundamental factors of Social Change.
  • We all know, there is an authenticated entity that there is a bond between our beliefs and social institutions.
  • Cultural elements of social change include:
    • Values
    • Beliefs
    • Ideas
    • Institutions
    • They all included and involve in the process of social change.
  • There are two major aspects of cultural change:
    • Cultural change by discovery and invention, and
    • Cultural change by diffusion and borrowing.

Ideational Factor

  • Ideational factor signifies pertaining to the formation of ideas or thoughts of objects not immediately present to the senses.
  • The development of science and technology has a lot to do with the social change in society.
  • Writers could be an ideational factor of social change as we get to read their interpretations and those ideas could influence the sequence of social change.
Ideational Factor

The ideational factors are the powerful motivating forces in social change as it comprises both ideas and ideologies.

Economic Factor

  • The most intense factor of social change is ‘Economic factor’ .
  • Momentarily it՚s the era of industrialization.
  • The word ‘industrialization’ you might be well visualized with the related terms of it-
    • Factories
    • More employment
    • Accelerated capitalization
  • A region with advanced industrialization and employment is undoubtedly assumed to do well throughout.
  • it՚ll be more developed than the area where there isn՚t any kind of sedate industrialization.
  • The economic factor of a society revolutionizes almost every aspect of peoples existence.
  • It can either uplift the standard of living of an individual or can downgrade someone՚s lifestyle.
  • The entire way of living, the institutions, organizations etc are impacted by this.

Political Factor

  • The most powerful fraction of a country is the organization which rules the country.
  • It also controls the social relationships.
  • As we know, the political organization has the most power in the country.
  • It can amend laws, repeal the old laws in case of emergency and make brand new laws.
  • Some of the laws which have an impact on the Social Change in society are:
    • Child marriage
    • Divorce
    • Inheritance succession,
    • Widow remarriage
    • Untouchability
  • They brought a huge change in the social structure of a society.

Main Factors (Causes) Affecting Social Change in India

  • Westernization
  • Industrialization
  • Urbanization
  • Casteism
  • Secularization
  • Social Mobility
  • Horizontal mobility
  • Politicalisation
  • Indianisation
  • Modernization
Main Factors (Causes) Affecting Social Change in in …

MCQ (Questions and Answers)

(1) Which among the following are the part of social change?

(A) Critical thinking

(B) Cultural Expression

(C) Action

(D) All of these

(2) “Social change model” is associated with which among the following:

(A) Group values

(B) Individual values

(C) Societal/Community values

(D) All of the above

(3) “Civilization change” which among the following:

(1) Religion

(2) Dress

(3) Food habits

(4) Rituals and arts

(A) 1 & 2 only (B) 2 & 3 only (C) 3 & 4 only (D) All of the above

(4) Which among the following are the factors of cultural change?

(A) Values

(B) Ideas

(C) Beliefs

(D) All of the above

(5) The “political factor” include which among the following:

(A) Child marriage

(B) Divorce

(C) Widow marriage

(D) All of the above


1. D 2. D 3. B 4. D 5. D

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