Social and Racial Groups for Competitive Exams (2020)

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image of Social and Racial Groups

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Social And Racial Groups: Types of Social And Racial Group (Population-Studies)


  • What is social group

  • The state of social interaction

  • Types of social group

  • Racial groups

  • Types of racial group

  • Major racial group of India

  • Questions and answers

Social Groups

  • “When two or more individuals come together and influence one another, they may be called a social group “.

William Ogburn

  • “Social group is a group of two or persons who are in state of interaction with one another”.

Mayer Nimkoff

  • Social Group:

    • Collectively of two or more individuals

    • Living in a state of interaction

    • With one another

The State of Social Interaction

  • It refers to reciprocal influence individual exert on one another through inter-stimulation and response.


  • A family living in a home

  • Group of employees working in a same organization

  • Group of classmates

  • A group of members of meeting

image of The State of Social Interaction

Image of the State of Social Interaction

Types of Social Group

Image of Types of Social Group

Image of Types of Social Group

On the Basis of Contact

  • Primary group: The group have a great importance. For instance, the family provides food, shelter and care for kid.

    • Family

    • Neighborhood

    • Local brotherhood

    • Close friends

    • Peers

  • Secondary Groups:

    • A shopkeeper –customer relation

    • A doctor- patient relation

    • An advocate –client relation

    • A teacher – student relation

    • A candidate –voter relation

On the Basis of Identification

  • In group: A group, to which we directly belong is called our – in group. It can be:

    • Our family

    • Tribe

    • Sex

    • Occupation

    • Games

    • Interest group

  • Out –group: A group to which we do not belong, is called an out -group. It can be any group of others (not ours), including:

    • A family

    • Ethnicity

On the Basis of Relation to Society

Image of On the Basis of Relation to Society

Image of on the Basis of Relation to Society

Racial Groups

  • The term race has been employed:

    • Culture (Latin race)

    • Tradition (Anglo Saxon Race)

    • Language (Semitic race of Aryan race)

    • Nationality (French, English, German or American race)

Image of Racial Groups

Image of Racial Groups

Types of Racial Groups

image of Types of Racial Groups

Image of Types of Racial Groups

Major Racial Groups of India

The Negritos:

  • They are the short statured type of human race. They are characterized by:

    • Woolly hair

    • Bulbous forehead

    • Broad flat nose

    • Slightly protruding jaws

    • Tribal groups such as Poliyans and Kedars living in the hills.

    • Forests of the Indian Peninsula and Andaman Islands constitute the Negrito race in India.

The Mongoloids:

  • They are mainly concentrated in the region of Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Ladakh and other part of North Eastern state.

  • They are broad-headed and long headed

  • They mostly live in Bhutan and Sikkim.

Percentage of Racial Tribe in India

image of Percentage of Racial Tribe in India

Image of Percentage of Racial Tribe in India

The Paleo- Mongoloids and Proto Australoid

  • The Paleo-Monoploids:

    • The first Mongoloids to came India

    • They are mainly settled in the border of Himalayas.

    • Found mostly in Assam and the adjacent States.

  • The Proto-Australoid:

    • They came just after Negritos.

    • They are settled in the central India.

    • Their hair is coarse and straight.

    • Santhals, Bhils, Gond, Munda, Oraon etc. tribes are related to this group.

    • Their skeleton found in excavations of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa.

    • The people who has the collaboration with the Mediterranean race, had developed the Indus valley civilization.

MCQ: Questions & Answers

(1) Which among the following is related to primary groups?

(A) Family

(B) Close friends

(C) Peers

(D) All of the above

(2) According to profession, what does the Pro-social group do ? Choose the correct option.

(1) Promoting education

(2) Increasing crime

(3) Reducing poverty

(A) 1 only (B) 1 & 2 only (C) 1 & 3 only (D) None of the above

(3) The Negoroits have:

(A) Wooly hair

(B) Narrow flat nose

(C) long stature type

(D) None of the above

(4) The Mongoloids are mainly found in which region?

(A) Indian peninsula

(B) Andaman Nicobar

(C) Arunachal Pradesh

(D) None of the above

(5) Which racial tribe has the highest concentration of population in India?

(A) Dravidians

(B) Indo-Aryan

(C) Mongoloids

(D) Other


(1) D (2) C (3) A (4) C (5) B

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