Methods in Psychology: Research Methodology, Biological Psychoanalytic Humanistic Behavioristic and Cognitive Approach YouTube Lecture Handout for Competitive Exams

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Research Methodology: 5 Steps, 4 Types and 7 Ethics in Research

Research Methodology: Steps, Types & Ethics

This lecture by Dr. Manishika Jain explains the basics of research methodology, steps in scientific research, correlation and experimental research, variables (dependent, independent and confounding) and finally ethics in research.

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Biological Approach

  • Focuses on biological structures- brain, genes, hormones, endocrine system and neurotransmitters
  • Focus on the parts of brain in regulating feelings, memories, emotions
  • Behaviour genetics as determinant of behaviour.

Psychoanalytic Approach

  • Sigmund Freud focused on unconscious libidinal energy
  • Mind in terms of hierarchical arrangements of experiences
  • Different layers of consciousness (e. g. conscious, preconscious, and unconscious) .
  • Assumed that majority of human behaviours are triggered by unconscious motivation.

Humanistic Approach

  • Contrary to Freud
  • Father of humanistic approach Carl Rogers- emphasis on conscious experiences
  • Role of interpersonal experiences across the course of life
  • Person is an active and self-actualizing agent
  • Maintain congruence between self and experience.
  • Past experiences may deny or distort the experiences
  • Therapeutic setting with genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathy

Behaviorist Approach

  • Analysis of explicit, objective and overt behaviour and relationship with stimulation
  • The father of behaviorism- J. B. Watson
  • Behaviour largely governed by the association between stimulus and response
  • Behaviour can be shaped in a desired direction by manipulating this association.

Cognitive Approach

  • Alternative to the mechanistic behaviourism.
  • Focuses on information processing of individual- perception, remembering, thinking, language, reasoning, problem solving, and decision making
  • Behaviour depends upon the processing of information
  • Relies on computational models
  • Mental processes in terms of information processing.
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