Psychology Study Material: Cantor՚s Social Intelligence Theory

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Cantor՚s Social Intelligence Theory

  • Given by Nancy Cantor and her colleagues (1987) .
  • Refers to the expertise, which a person uses in different life situations/tasks.

The theory explains several types of individual differences.

  • Choice of Life Goal: Giving priority/importance to the most important goal at a particular point of life. i.e.. , student -- ‘Good grades’
  • Use of ‘knowledge’ in social interactions.

Use of life experiences and expertise in problem solving.

Cognitive Approach in Behaviour Modification

  • Negative and unacceptable behaviour is modified through constructive strategies.
  • According to this approach, person՚s beliefs and attitudes effect the motivation and behaviour of a person
  • In order to modify the behaviour, reinforcement techniques are used.
  • For attaining the desired goal, realistic strategies are used with continuous feedback.

Altering the Belief System

Psychologists are of the view that psychological problems arise due to the way people perceive themselves in relation with the people they interact with.

Altering the Belief System

Main focus of the therapist is to alter the irrational belief system of a person.

Cognitive Theory for Depression

  • Aaron Beck formulated the therapy for depression patients.
  • Therapist helps the depressive person to change the faulty patterns of thinking through problem- solving techniques
  • Believed that depression reoccurs in depressive patients because the negative thoughts occur automatically of which they are not aware.

The therapist uses four tactics

  • Challenging the patient՚s ill beliefs
  • Evaluating the cause of depression
  • Attributing the cause to the environmental situation/event not to the person՚s in competencies
  • Finding the alternative and effective solutions for the complex problems.

Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapy

  • Developed by Albert Ellis (1962,1977) .
  • Focused on altering the irrational beliefs into more acceptable ways.
  • Clients are forbidden to use “should” , “must” , “ought” etc.
  • Confrontation techniques are used which focus on changing the attitudes through rational reasoning.
  • Task is to protect the self-worth, potential to be self-actualized, by blocking the irrational thinking patterns.
  • In short, in the last few decades, researchers have made significant breakthroughs in understanding the brain, nervous system, mental processes such as the nature of consciousness, memory distortions, competence and rationality, genetic influences on behaviour, infancy, the nature of intelligence, human motivation, prejudice and discrimination, the benefits of psychotherapy, and the psychological influences on the immune system.

Research Methods in Psychology

Scientific Method in Psychology

The scientific method is an approach that practitioners of psychology are interested in for assessing, measuring, and predicting behaviour. It is the process of appropriately framing and properly answering questions. It is used by psychologists and those engaged in other scientific disciplines, to come to an understanding about the world.

Scientific Nature of Psychology

Psychology is a Science

  • Science: An approach using the scientific method for the observation, description, understanding, and prediction of any phenomenon.
  • Scientific method: The procedure employing a systematic, pre-defined, series of steps for attaining optimal efficiency, accuracy, and objectivity in investigating the problem of interest
  • Systematic: it follows a specified system, an organized ways of collecting and tabulating information.
  • Pre-defined series of steps: certain steps following a specific sequence that is not to be altered; disruption of the sequence will ruin the essence of the approach
  • Objectivity: It is unbiased; the researcher՚s likes and dislikes do not interfere with the study or its findings.