Psychology Study Material: Carl Gustav Jung and Major Goal of Life

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Carl Gustav Jung

The founder of the analytical school of psychology, Jung was mystical in his understanding and description of personality. He had a positive approach toward one՚s ability to control one՚s destiny.

Jung՚s Disagreements with Freud

He disagreed with Fred on:

  • The understanding and description of the genders.
  • The nature of unconscious.

Major Goal of Life

Unification of all aspect of our personality:

Main Concepts

Conscious and Unconscious

Introversion (inner directed) , extroverted (outer directed) .


Energy for personal growth and development

Types of Unconscious

  • Personal: Similar to Freudian view
  • Collective: ideas, and influences beyond personal experience, inherited from all generations of our ancestors and common to all humanity.


Part of collective unconscious; universal forms and patterns of thought. These include themes that can be seen in myths e. g. masculinity, femininity, good, evil opposites, motherhood. Archetypes are the universal representations of a particular person, object, or experience, e. g. archetypes of mother, good, or evil.

Adler՚s Approach

Disagreed with Freud՚s emphasis on the significance of sexual needs

Main Concepts

Esteem, inferiority complex, birth order, will power and style of life.

  • We are a product of the social influences on our personality.
  • Goals and incentives drive us more than drives and instincts.
  • Our goal in life is to achieve success and superiority.

Primary Human Motivation

  • Striving for superiority; achievement of self-improvement, and perfection, and not superiority over others.
  • Inferiority complex, on the other hand, is the state when people feel that they have not been able to conquer, as adults, the feelings of inferiority that they developed as children.
  • Inferiority complex: the feeling of being less able than others.

Motivating Forces of Human Life

  • Feeling of inferiority, and a desire to overcome it through striving for superiority.
  • People are primarily motivated to overcome inherent feelings of inferiority.
  • Birth Order Has effect on personality.

Sibling Rivalry

Karen Horney 1885 - 1952

She agreed with Freud on the levels of unconscious, anxiety, and repression. She emphasized childhood experiences, social interaction and personal growth.

Disagreement with Freud

Differed from Freud on primary impulses; impulses are not the main motivating force Disagreed on Freudian position regarding the biological basis of differences between the males and females.

Horney՚s Main Concepts

Horney՚s Main Concepts

Basic Anxiety

A major concept: if the environment is hostile and the child feels lonely and isolated, then this type of anxiety develops. It can be overcome by proper parental nurturing

Basic Hostility

  • Children develop such hostility if parents are over strict, punishing, indifferent, or inconsistent.
  • Children feel very aggressive and hostile but cannot express it. Repressed hostility leads to anxiety.
  • Social Interaction and Interpersonal Styles

The ways in which people interact with each other is important. There can be three consequences:

  • Moving away from others: seeking self-sufficiency and independence.
  • Moving toward others: being compliant and dependant.
  • Moving against others: trying to gain control, power, and independence.
  • Neuroses Arise from emotional conflicts that arise from childhood experiences, and disturbances in interpersonal relationships in later life.