6 Stages of Sleep & 3 Biological Reasons for Sleep-Roller Coaster of Dreams YouTube Lecture Handouts

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6 Stages of Sleep & 3 Biological Reasons for Sleep - Roller Coaster of Dreams

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CONSCIOUSNESS

Sensations & perceptions of external events

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Self-awareness of mental events

Image of Waking Consciousness And Altered Consciousness

Image of Waking Consciousness and Altered Consciousness

Image of Waking Consciousness And Altered Consciousness

Causes of Altered State of Consciousness

  • Sensory Overload

  • Monotonous Stimulation

  • Unusual Physical Conditions

  • Restricted Sensory Input

SLEEP

Micro-sleep to Macro-accidents

It is necessity not luxury

Biological Basis of Sleep

Image of Biological Basis of Sleep

Image of Biological Basis of Sleep

Image of Biological Basis of Sleep

Night Roller-Coaster

Image of Night Roller Coaster

Image of Night Roller Coaster

Image of Night Roller Coaster

EEG & EMG Patterns

  • β (beta) > 13 Hz

  • 13 Hz ≥ α (alpha) ≥ 8 Hz

  • 8 Hz > θ (theta) ≥ 4 Hz

  • 4 Hz > δ (delta)

  • EMG > 0.5 sec → NREM Sleep

Stage W

  • Waking Stage

  • EMG – High tonic

  • EEG – low voltage (alpha and beta waves)

STAGE 1

  • Light Sleep

  • Irregular Breathing

  • Muscles relax

  • Reflex muscle twitch (hypnic jerk) / Positive Myoclonus

  • Alpha waves (8-13 Hz) to Theta Waves (4-7Hz)

  • No K-Complex or Sleep Spindles

  • EEG – Low voltage (amplitude) implies high frequency

  • EMG – Lower than Stage W

Image of Stage - 1

Image of Stage - 1

Image of Stage - 1

STAGE 2

  • Sleep Spindles (within 4 minutes – person sleeps) – 12- 14 Hz

  • K-Complex (<3 minute low voltage)

  • EMG – Muscle activity decrease

  • 45-55% of total sleep

Image of Sleep Spindles And K Complexes

Image of Sleep Spindles and K Complexes

Image of Sleep Spindles And K Complexes

Stage 3

  • Delta Waves appear (large and slow) – 0.5-2 Hz

  • Parasomnia, Night terror, Sleepwalking occur

  • No eye movements

  • EOG - High voltage slow wave activity

  • EMG – Active but with very low levels

Stage 4

  • Slow Wave Sleep (SWS)

  • Delta waves

  • Deepest level of normal sleep

  • EOG - High voltage slow wave activity

  • EMG – Active but with very low levels

  • Growth hormones are released at peak

REM

  • 20-25% of total sleep & Most memorable dreams

  • EEG – rapid low voltage, mixed frequency

  • Descending muscle atonia

  • Sawtooth waves – Notched Waves – Theta Range

  • EMG – Lowest Level, Phasic Twitches (<0.10sec)

  • EOG – burst of eye movement, increase as sleep progress

  • Rare Delta waves, Alpha waves more prominent than Stage 1

  • Excessive beta waves (not confuse with sleep spindle)

  • Few K complex (if >3 minutes)

Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Image - 1

Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Image - 1

Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Image - 1

Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Image - 2

Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Image - 2

Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Image - 2

Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Image - 3

Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Image - 3

Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Image - 3

Recommendations - American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM)

  • REM → R

  • NREM → N

  • Wakefulness → W

  • Stage 3 & 4 → N3

  • Now, W, R, N1, N2, and N3