Terminology in Psychology Competitive Exams Psychology Part 2

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What is Hypothesis? 13 Types of Hypothesis (Null & Alternative) - Research Methodology

Counseling psychologist: A psychologist who specializes in the treatment of milder emotional and behavioral disturbances.

Critical thinking: An ability to evaluate, compare, analyze, critique, and synthesize information.

Declarative memory: That part of long-term memory containing specific factual information.

Dependent variable: In an experiment, the condition (usually a behavior) that is affected by the independent variable.

Determinism: The idea that all behavior has prior causes that would completely explain one՚s choices and actions if all such causes were known.

Developmental psychology: The study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities from conception to death.

Difference threshold: The minimum difference between two stimuli that is detectable to an observer.

Discovery learning: Learning based on insight and understanding.

Discrimination: Perception of and response to differences in stimuli

Discriminative stimuli: Stimuli that precede rewarded and nonrewarded responses in operant conditioning.

Divergent thinking: Thinking that produces many ideas or alternatives; a major element in original or creative thought.

Drives: Internal states that arise in response to disequilibrium in an animal՚s physiological needs.

Echoic Memory: Sensory memory that allows auditory information to be stored for brief durations

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) : The use of electroconvulsive shock as an effective treatment for severe depression

Electroencephalograph (EEC) : A device that detects, amplifies, and records electrical activity in the brain.

Emotion: A state characterized by physiological arousal, changes in facial expression, gestures, posture, and subjective feelings.

Emotional intelligence: The ability to perceive use, understand, and manage emotions.

Encoding: Converting information into a form in which it will be retained in memory.

Endocrine System: The network of glands that manufacture and secrete hormones into the bloodstream

Episodic Memories: Long-term memories for autobiographical events and the contexts in which they occurred

Evolutionary psychology: Study of the evolutionary origins of human behavior patterns.

Expectancy: An anticipation concerning future events or relationships.

Experiential processing: Thought that is passive, effortless, and automatic.

Experiment: Procedure used to test the effects of a treatment.

Experimental Group: Group that receives treatment during an experiment

Experimental method: Investigating causes of behavior through controlled experimentation.

Extinction: The weakening of a conditioned response through removal of reinforcement.

Feedback: Information on the results of one՚s efforts

Five-factor model: Proposes that there are five universal dimensions of personality.

Fixation: A state in which a person remains attached to objects or activities more appropriate for an earlier stage of psychosexual development.

Flashbulb memory: Memory created at times of high emotion that seems especially vivid.

Free Association: The therapeutic method in which a patient gives a running account of thoughts, wishes, physical sensations, and mental images as they occur

Frequency theory: Holds that tones up to 4,000 hertz are converted to nerve impulses that match the frequency of each.

Frustration-aggression hypothesis: States that frustration tends to lead to aggression.

Functional Fixedness: Block to solving problems caused by an inability to see new uses for familiar objects or ideas.

Genes: Specific areas on a strand of DNA that carry hereditary information.

Gestalt psychology: A school of psychology emphasizing the study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analysis into parts.

Gestalt Therapy: Therapy that focuses on ways to unite mind and body to make a person whole

Giftedness: Either the possession of a high IQ or special talents or aptitudes.

Groupthink: A compulsion by members of decision-making groups to maintain agreement, even at the cost of critical thinking.

Growth needs: In Maslow՚s hierarchy, the higher-level needs associated with self – actualization.

Hallucination: An imaginary sensation — such as seeing, hearing, or smelling something that does not exist in the external world.

Health psychology: Study of the ways in which cognitive and behavioral principles can be used to prevent illness and promote health.

Heredity: The biological transmission of traits from parents to offspring

Hippocampus: A part of the limbic associated with storing memories.

Homeostasis: A steady state of body equilibrium.

Hormone: A glandular secretion that affects bodily functions or behavior.

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