Psychology: Terminology in Psychology Competitive Exams Part 5

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Nervous System: 2 Components and Neurons

Sensorimotor stage: Stage of intellectual development during which sensory input and motor responses become coordinated.

Sensory adaptation: A decrease in sensory response to an unchanging stimulus.

Sensory memory: The first, normally unconscious, stage of memory, which holds an exact record of incoming information for a few seconds or less.

Shape constancy: The perceived shape of an object is unaffected by changes in its retinal image.

Shaping: Gradually molding responses to a final desired pattern.

Short-Term Memory: Component of memory where limited amounts of information can be stored for a few seconds

Size Constancy: The ability to perceive the true size of an object despite variations in the size of its retinal image

Social comparison: Making judgments about ourselves through comparison with others.

Social Development: The ways in which individuals′ social interactions and expectations change across the life span.

Social influence: Changes in a person՚s behavior induced by the presence or actions of others.

Social learning theory: Combines learning principle with cognitive processes, socialization, and modeling, to explain behavior.

Social norms: Rules that define acceptable and expected behavior for members of a group.

Social psychology: The scientific study of how individuals behave, think, and feel in social situations.

Social Role: A socially defined pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is functioning in a given setting or group

Social-Learning Therapy: A form of treatment in which clients observe models′ desirable behaviors being reinforced

Somatic nervous system (SNS) : The system of nerves carrying information to and from the internal organs.

Somatoform disorder: Physical symptoms that mimic disease or injury for which there is no identifiable physical cause.

Spaced practice: Practice spread over many relatively short study sessions.

Spontaneous recovery: The reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction.

Stimulus control: Linking a particular response with specific stimuli.

Stimulus discrimination: The learned ability to respond differently to similar stimuli.

Stimulus generalization: The tendency to respond to stimuli similar to, but not identical to, a conditioned stimulus.

Storage: Holding information in memory for later use.

Stress: The mental and physical condition that occurs when a person must adjust or adapt to the environment.

Structuralism: The school of thought concerned with analyzing sensations and personal experience into basic elements.

Subjective well-being: A positive state of good health; more than the absence of disease.

Sympathetic branch: The branch of the ANS that arouses the body.

Systematic desensitization: A reduction in fear, anxiety, or aversion brought about by planned exposure to aversive stimuli.

Temperament: The physical core of personality, Including emotional and perceptual sensitivity, energy levels, typical mood, and so forth.

Temporal Lobe: Region of brain found below the lateral fissure; contains auditory cortex.

Thalamus: The brain structure that relays sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) : A projective test consisting of 20 different scenes and life situations about which respondents make up stories.

Theory: A set of principles that explain and relate certain phenomena

Top-down processing: Applying higher-level knowledge to rapidly organize sensory information into a meaningful perception.

Transference: The tendency of patients to transfer feeling to a therapist that correspond to those the patient had for important persons in his or her past.

Type A personality: A personality type with an elevated risk of heart disease; characterized by time urgency, anger, and hostility.

Type B personality: All personality types other than Type A; a low – cardiac-risk personality.

Unconditional positive regard: An unqualified, unshakable acceptance of another person.

Unconditioned response (UR) : An innate reflex response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus.

Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) : In classical conditioning, the stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response

Unconscious: The domain of the psyche that stores repressed urges and primitive impulses

Understanding: In psychology, understanding is achieved when the causes of a behavior can be stated.

Validity: The ability of a test to measure what it purports to measure.

Variable: Something that can have more than one value

Variable-Interval Schedule: Dispensing reinforcement for behavior emitted following an unpredictable amount of time

Variable-Ratio Schedule: A schedule of reinforcement in which a reinforcer is delivered for the first response made after a variable number of responses whose average is predetermined

Working memory: Another name for short-term memory, especially as it is used for thinking and problem solving.

Yerkes-Dodson law: A summary of the relationships among arousal, task complexity, and performance.

Zone Of Proximal Development: Level of development immediately above a person՚s present level