Hypothesis Testing YouTube Lecture Handouts for Competitive Exams
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Hypothesis Testing
Types of Errors & pRegion
Null versus Alternative Hypothesis
Null Hypothesis (H_{0})

No statistical significance between the two variables.

Researcher is trying to disprove it.

Individual is free from disease

Relationship is due to chance
Alternative Hypothesis (H_{a})

Statistical significance between the two variables.

Researcher is trying to approve it

Individual has disease

Relationship is not due to chance

If is accepted, is rejected
Pregion
Errors in Hypothesis
True  
Decision About Retain  CORRECT 
Decision About Reject  Type I Error (α) 
Type I Error

Reject when its true

α error

Error of first kind

Error of excessive credulity

False positive

Poor specificity

If a test shows that a person has kidney stone when in reality he/she does not
Pvalue
Probability of obtaining an effect at least as extreme as the one in your sample data, assuming the truth of the null hypothesis.
Errors in Hypothesis
True  False  
Decision About Retain  CORRECT  Type II Error 
Decision About Reject  Type I Error (α)  CORRECT 
Type II Error

Accept 𝐻_0 when its false

β error

Error of second kind

Error of excessive skepticism

False negative

Low sensitivity

If a test shows that a person is not having kidney stone when in reality he/she does have a kidney stone.
Manishika