Research Reporting YouTube Lecture Handouts: Quantities Studies and Qualitative Studies

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Research Reporting Steps: Quantitative and Qualitative Studies


  • After completion of research – reporting is important to disseminate to others – knowledge, rules of typing, format and reporting style – requires scholarship, precision of thought and originality
  • Can be thesis, dissertation (elaborate and comprehensive)
  • Or journal article and a paper to be prescribed at a professional meeting (precise and concise)

Format for Quantitative Studies

Preliminary Pages

1. Title Page

(a) Title

(b) Degree requirement

(c) University or institution՚s name

(d) Author՚s name

(e) Supervisor՚s name

(f) University Department

(g) Year

2. Acknowledgements

3. Supervisor՚s Certificate

4. Table of contents

5. List of Tables

6. List of Figures

Main Body the Report

1. Chapter – I: Introduction

a. Theoretical Framework

b. Rationale of the study

c. Statement of the problem

d. Definitions of terms

e. Objectives

f. Hypothesis

g. Scope and Delimitations of the study

h. Significance of the study

2. Chapter II: Review of Related Literature

3. Chapter III: Methodology and Procedures

a. Design and Research method

b. Population and sample

c. Tools and techniques of data collection

d. Techniques of data analysis

4. Data Analyses

5. Results and Discussions

6. Conclusions and Recommendations

7. Bibliography

8. Appendices

Format for Qualitative Studies

1. Preliminary pages (same as in quantitative research)

2. Introduction

(a) General problem statement

(b) Preliminary Research Review

(c) Foreshadowed Problems

(d) Significance of the study

(e) Delimitations of the study

3. Design and Methodology

(a) Site selection

(b) Researcher՚s Role

(c) Purposeful / Theoretical Sampling

(d) Data collection strategies

4. Qualitative Data analysis and Presentation

5. Presentation of Findings: An Analytical interpretation

6. Bibliography

7. Appendices

For Article or a Paper for a Journal and Seminar

1. Title and author՚s name and address

2. Abstract

3. Introduction

4. Method

(a) Sample

(b) Tools

(c) Procedure

5. Results

6. Discussions

7. References

Style of Writing

  • Rules of spelling, capitalization, punctuations and typing
  • Creative, clear, concise and comprehensive
  • Not have subjective or emotional statements
  • Void personal pronouns (I and Me) and active voice
  • Avoid colloquial expressions like write up etc.
  • Avoid he or she (sexist language)
  • Instead of using titles and first names of the cited authors, last name is needed
  • Don՚t use shouldn՚t, can՚t (constructed form of modal auxiliaries)
  • Past tense or present perfect tense is used for review of related literature and description of methodology, procedure results and findings the study, Present tense is appropriate for discussing results and presenting research conclusions and interpretations. Future tense, except in research proposals, is rarely used
  • Numbers less than ten to be expressed in words
  • Neither standard statistical formula nor computations are given in the research report
  • Left margin as 1.5 inch and rest as 1 inch
  • Double spacing with Times new roman and font size 12
  • Direct quotations not over three typewritten lines in length are included in the text and enclosed in quotation marks. Quotations of more than three lines are set off from the text in double – spaced paragraph and indented five spaces from left margin without quotation marks

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