Competitive Exams: Stages in Research
Briefly explain the various primary stages of research process.
Research is a source which can be draw upon to make a substantial contribution to the body of the knowledge; research should be followed by some sort of original contribution. The primary stage includes
Research start with observation, which leads to curiosity to learn more about what has been observed. Observation can either be unaided visual observation or guided and controlled observation. Sometimes a casual or associated observation leading to substantial research and a great invention. Deliberate and guided observation can also form the basis for research. While observation leads to research, research results in elaborate observation and convulsions; or even further research observation can either be subjective or objective. These are participant observation, on participant observation, controlled observation and non controlled observation.
The observation of certain occurrences creates an interest and inquisitiveness in the mind of the researcher to study it further. This is the basis of interest to study the subject matter of observation. It may be self interest or group interest. The interest is the guiding force behind any research.
Crystallization is the process of designing the definite form of Research to be undertaken for the purpose of studying the subject matter. It is the formulation of the research project, a defining its objectives, rationale, scope, methodology, limitations, including financial commitments and sources. It is at this stage that the research project is given a concrete shape and structure, forming a basis of further investigation.
Formulation of hypothesis
At this stage the hypothesis is formed on the basis of observation. Hypothesis is apart of the scientific method, and has been dealt with in detail in the chapter on scientific method and hypothesis
Synopsis is a summary/outline/brief of any subject. It is not a complete subject still formalization of a subject/replica of a subject. It saves time. It will give an idea of time required for presentation of the main subject. Once the subject is decided you can arrange titles likes like main headings, paragraph heading-elaborate the paragraph with important of main issues.
Any researcher should have in-depth background knowledge of the topic of his study. He can gain such basic knowledge only be an extensive reading of text books, specialized books and publications on the topic in addition to articles and research papers published in journals and periodicals, reports of the past studies, etc. He can also gain knowledge by details discussion with the people concerned and by his own observation. However it is imperative for a researcher to gain a deep knowledge form any reliable source prior to actually plunging himself into a research, so theta he may have clear knowledge of the concepts which would be of value to him in his task.
The documentary sources are important sources of information for a researcher. A document is anything in writing a record, files or diaries, published or unpublished-which can be extracted and used in research. It is very valuable source of information for research either in management or in social science. It may comprises office files, business and legal papers, biographies, official and unofficial records, letters, proceedings of any courts, committees, societies, assemblies and parliaments, enactments, constitution, reports of surveys or research of commissions, official statistics, newspapers editorials, special articles, company news, cases or company directors reports etc. Documentation is the process of collecting and extracting the documents which relevant research.
Documents may be classified into
- Personal documents
- Company documents
- Consultants report and published materials
- Public documents
At the end of any research report a bibliography is generally added. This is the list of books publication, periodicals, journals, reports, etc which are used by researcher in the connection with the study. It is a description of books, their authorship, editions, publishers, year of publication, place of publication etc. In ordinary circumstance, a researcher reads, and makes notes form, many books and publications at the primary stage of researcher in order to gain conceptual clarity. He prepares a list of such publications are reports then and there, which helps him in the course of his research. Some mistakenly believe that a bibliography is merely a list of publication compiled at the end of report writing like an appendix. On the contrary a bibliography contains and is composed of the details of publications that the researcher has used in connection with his study. These facilities any further reference to the matter either by the researcher himself or anybody who goes through the researcher report.