Standardization of Tests YouTube Lecture Handouts for Competitive Exams

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Watch video lecture on YouTube: Standardization of Tests Bridging Design and Reality - Standardization of Tests
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Why Test?

STANDARDIZATION of TESTS

  • Administered Under Uniform Conditions

  • Answer Same Questions

  • Are Scored Consistently/Objectively

  • Measure Relative Performance

Image of Major Relative Performance of Standardization

Image of Major Relative Performance of Standardization

Image of Major Relative Performance of Standardization

Image of Standardization of Tests

Image of Standardization of Tests

Image of Standardization of Tests

Norms

Comparing results with others

Image of Norms

Image of Norms

Image of Norms

Reliability

Reliability is the extent to which a test is repeatable and yields consistent scores.

  • Repeatability

  • Consistent Scores

An observed test score is made up of the true score plus measurement error.

The goal of estimating reliability (consistency) is to determine how much of the variability in test scores is due to measurement error and how much is due to variability in true scores.

Reliability can be improved by:

  • getting repeated measurements using the same test and

  • getting many different measures using slightly different techniques and methods.

Types of Reliability

There are several types of reliability:

  • Test-retest reliability: The test-retest method of estimating a test's reliability involves administering the test to the same group of people at least twice.

  • Alternate Forms: Administer Test A to a group and then administer Test B to same group.

  • Split Half reliability: Relationship between half the items and the other half.

  • Inter-rater Reliability: Compare scores given by different raters.

  • Internal consistency: Internal consistence is commonly measured as Cronbach's Alpha (based on inter-item correlations) - between 0 (low) and 1 (high). The greater the number of similar items, the greater the internal consistency.

Validity

Validity is the extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure and is a subjective judgment made on experience and empirical indicators.

Types of Validity

  • Face validity: Does the measure, on the face it, seem to measure what is intended

  • Construct validity: It measures what it purports to measure.

  • Criterion validity: Criterion validity consists of concurrent and predictive validity.

    • Concurrent validity: Measure relate to other manifestations of the construct the device is supposed to be measuring

    • Predictive validity: Test predict an individual performance in specific abilities

  • Convergent validity: Whether this tests returns similar results to other tests which purport to measure the same or related constructs.

  • Discriminant validity: Measure doesn't measure what it isn't meant to measure - i.e. it discriminates.

Sources of Invalidity

  • Unreliability

  • Bias

  • Test Bias

Generalizability

Know whether the results of a measure or a test used with a particular group can be generalized to other tests or other groups.

So a test may be reliable and it may be valid but its results may not be generalizable to other tests measuring the same construct nor to populations other than the one sampled.

Standardization

Standardized tests are:

  • administered under uniform conditions.

  • scored objectively.

  • designed to measure relative performance.