14 Types of Research Methods YouTube Lecture Handouts

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14 Types of Research Methods - Where to Apply?


Framework of Research Methods

Basic Versus Applied

  • Fundamental or Basic or Pure – New knowledge – why, what & how – advancement of theory – single discipline – in technical language
  • Applied – solve specific problem – solve immediate problem for betterment – in common language

Fixed Versus Flexible

  • Fixed Research – design is fixed, theory driven, measured quantitatively
  • Flexible Research – more freedom for data collection, qualitative

Quantitative vs. Qualitative

  • Quantitative – Collection & analysis of data – from questionnaire, survey (assume world to be stable so can be measured) – deductive (logic)
  • Qualitative – Non-numeric – like observation, interview (since perspective of people differs) – narrative description and field focused – inductive (empirical)
Ethnographic-Inductive Logic and Hypothetico - Dedu …

Experimental vs. Non-Experimental

  • Experimental - Cause effect relationship, control gp & experimental gp (can include pilot study) , manipulate IV, effect of changing IV on DV, starts with hypothesis, control of extraneous variable is important, Control experiment – physical, selective, statistical
  • Non-experimental – Uses theories & reasoning, has wide scope
  • Exploratory
  • Descriptive
  • Historical

Exploratory vs. Confirmatory Research

  • Exploratory – explore possibility of doing research where due to paucity of knowledge, hypothesis testing is difficult (e. g. , vendor may explore possible sales areas) – has higher level of uncertainty & ignorance of subject, easier to make new discoveries – less stringent – case study, ethnography, projective techniques
  • Exploratory research generate a posteriori hypotheses by examining a data-set and looking for potential relations between variables.
  • Confirmatory research tests a priori hypotheses - outcome predictions that are made before the measurement phase begins. Are usually derived from a theory or the results of previous studies.

Explanatory or Casual Research

  • Explains cause effect relationship
  • Idea is to understand does a change in X cause a change in Y?
  • It can employ statistical method or experimental method
  • It is a conclusive research – determine relation between causal variable and effect predicted

Descriptive Research

  • Only why and what – not deals with β€œhow” (what are benefits of multimedia textbooks as compared to print textbooks)
  • More structured than exploratory
  • Static – single phenomena – public opinion
  • Dynamic - cross sectional or longitudinal
  • Includes
  • Survey studies – assess characteristics of whole population
  • Interrelationship studies – relationship among data (case studies, casual comparative, correlational)
  • Developmental studies – changes as function of time (growth, trend, model development)

Historical Research

  • Examine past events
  • Qualitative
  • Primary source – relic, remain, artifacts
  • Secondary source – textbook, newspaper, periodicals
  • Criticism – external (genuineness of source) and internal (based on accuracy and competence of writer)

Ex-Post Facto or Casual - Comparative Research

  • Quasi-experimental – participants are not randomly assigned – 2 gp. with different IV and compare them on DV
  • IV (cause) prior to study affects DV (effect)
  • Studies what researcher cannot alter (can՚t make a person overweight for studying its effect on behavior)
  • Tsunami hit area

Correlational Research

  • Degree of relationship b/w variables
  • It is quantitative
  • Range -1 to 0 to + 1

Evaluation Research

  • Determines impact of social intervention (impact of program on certain social problem)
  • Strategies
  • Scientific-experimental model – accuracy and objectivity
  • Management oriented - PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) , and CPM (Critical Path Method)
  • Qualitative Anthropological model – importance of observation
  • Participant-oriented – client-centered and stakeholder approach

Formative vs. Summative Evaluation

  • Formative – improve object being evaluated
    • Need assessment – who needs and how great the need is
    • Evaluative assessment – evaluation is feasible
    • Structured conceptualization
    • Implementation - transparency
    • Process
  • Summative Evaluation – examine effect or outcome
    • Outcome
    • Impact – broader than outcome (includes intended and unintended effects)
    • Cost-effectiveness
    • Secondary analysis – reexamine data to address new questions
    • Meta-analysis – integrate outcome from multiple studies

Diagnostic Research

  • Find the cause
  • Emergence of problem β‡Ύ diagnosis and solution

Prognostic Research

  • Find relation b/w predictor and outcome
  • Find course of action
  • Early detection

Action Research

  • Solve immediate problem, carried by actors (main people)
  • Led by team – participatory or practical
  • Might include observation, interview, field note, survey or questionnaire
  • Individual – one person
  • Collaborative – 2 or more
  • School-wide – entire system

Types of Research Problems Addressed

  • Exploratory questions -What is the case? , What are the key factors?
  • Descriptive questions - How many? What is the incidence of x? Are x and y related?
  • Causal questions - Why? What are the causes of y?
  • Evaluative questions - What was the outcome of x? Has P been successful?
  • Predictive questions - What will the effect of x be on y?
  • Historical questions - What led to y happening? What were the events that led up to y? What caused y?
Table of Research Design and Research Methodology for Research
Research DesignResearch Methodology
Focuses on the end-product: what kind of study is being planned and what kind of results are aimed at.

E. g. Historical – comparative study, interpretive approach OR exploratory study inductive and deductive etc.

Focuses on the research process and the kind of tools and procedures to be used.

E. g. Document analysis, survey methods, analysis of existing (secondary data/statistics etc)

Point of departure (driven by) = Research problem or question.Point of departure (driven by) = Specific tasks (data collection or sampling) at hand.
Focuses on the logic of research: What evidence is required to address the question adequately?Focuses on the individual (not linear) steps in the research process and the most β€˜objective’ (unbiased) procedures to be employed.

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